At the beginning of the play Nora and Torvald appear to have a loving, happy relationship. But even at the beginning there are hints that it is not. Keywords: Husband – Wife Relationship, Feminism, Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House. 1. A Doll's House tells about a life of Nora, Torvald Helmer; a man who works in .. the most important is they don't put God as the guidance of their marriage. During Act One at the beginning of the play, readers are introduced to the relationship between husband and wife, Nora and Torvald Helmer.
At the beginning of the play, Nora and Torvald appear to be very happily married, even to themselves. Nora talks joyfully about her love for Torvald, and Torvald refers to Nora using affectionate pet names.
Their loving marriage stands in stark contrast with the lives of the other characters: Linde were based on necessity rather than love, and were unhappy. Rank was never married, and, it is revealed, has silently loved Nora for years. Lindeit is nonetheless still governed by the strict rules of society that dictated the roles of husband and wife.
At first it seems that Nora and Torvald both enjoy playing the roles of husband and wife in a way that is considered respectable by society. However, Nora soon reveals to Mrs. This creates a dilemma: Yet this is an act of love that society condemns, thereby placing the rules of marriage above love. The interactions that shown between both of them are an interesting theme to inspect because it is about the relation between two different types of sex that forming the social order of society in way of social and culture.
In the wider and complex system, the relationship between man and woman is being manifested in much form and behavioural pattern that represents the agreement of man or woman towards the position of another sex.
This process is strengthen by the realities in many cultures that the position of man is and always higher in structural than woman. That thing proves that the interaction that has bond is just demanding man to be the higher position. The man side as the winner has a bigger power and role in the social process than woman.
The taking of decision in a family cannot release from the domination of man that has a bigger authority. Family as the smallest form of society also get affected by the concept that explained above.
Patriarchal family structure rested on men's control of most or all property, starting with land itself. Then, marriage finally puts men as the superior and women as the inferior one.
There is a comprehension which is stated that woman is not only as a mother, wife and housewife for family, but in social and culture; woman also has a wider role. In literature history, Henrik Ibsen is a famous writer that wrote drama script in Norwegia. He was born in Skien, Norwegian on 20 March and died on 23 May He is the most influencing drama writer in Norwegia. His works is the second of most performed drama play in the world after Shakespeare.
Ibsen was prying the realities that occur behind the much of walls; an individual, family and society, and the most of the content is demolishing the things that arousing the controversy and restiveness of the people in his period.
Nora in this story is imagined as a doll. Secondly, Henrik Ibsen is one of most famous drama writer in the world. His works is the second most frequently performed drama in the world. For the drama teacher, this research is expected to be one of the teaching references. For the society, this research is expected to be a reference and knowledge about how to be an ideal member of family, especially being a good husband and wife. The analysis form of it is Mannering, contextual and so relating with the aspects of social, politics and economy.
In this term, we should differentiate between male and female as an biological aspects, as nature essencemasculine and feminine as the distinction of psychology and culture. In the other words, male-female are referring to sex, masculine- feminine are pointing to gender, as she and he Selden, So, the objectives of feminism are balance, and gender interrelation. In the widest definition, feminism is a movement of women to refuse everything that is marginalized, subordinates and lowing by dominant culture either in politics, economy and social, woman emancipation in contemporary social context known as the gender equivalence.
The experiences problems that correlated to the specialization of woman as biological differences, such as; menstruation, being pregnant, born a child. Western culture sees like that there is only one kind of sex, male, and female is just incomplete sex.
Vagina is deemed as a home for penis, clitoris is deemed as a small penis. Conversely, Irigaray stated that woman has sex organ almost place of body. It grew out of the same social ferment and the same consciousness-raising groups that produced other form of feminism. As the result, socialist feminists focus on a full range of oppression, not simply the sex or gender system.
Long before the feminist movement was declared, there are many woman writers that had been realized the condition of women which are get oppressed by men because of the system that ruled the society, patriarchy system.
Two of them are Simone de Beauvoir and Mary Wollstonecraft. Beauvoir says that men represent both positive and neutral while women represent only negative. She is asserting the idea that when men's manhood have influence over something, it can only be of a positive nature, unless of course it is neutral. Women's woman hood can have a negative influence. Because women are already accompanied by the gift of beauty, these attributes will ensure them the protection of man.
Mary Wollstonecraft also stresses that man tries to secure the good conduct of a woman by reducing her to a state of innocence and childhood. The oppressed that the men do is caused of the men thought that women are weak creatures.
The theme of Love and Marriage in A Doll's House from LitCharts | The creators of SparkNotes
And then men at the time can easily do something that lowered the status of women because the man had the authority from the social system; patriarchy system which can make men make laws that gives their sex advantages over the women. Definition Of Drama The word drama derives from French word drame which is used to explain the acts about the life of middle class society Harmsworth in Soemanto, The origin western drama can be traced to the celebratory music of 6th century BC Attica, the Greek region which is centred on Athens.
In 19th century the romanticism drama appears. In its purest form, Romanticism concentrated on the spiritual, which would allow humankind to transcend the limitations of the physical world and body and find an ideal truth. The Romantics focused on emotion rather than rationality, drew their examples from a study of the real world rather than the ideal, and glorified the idea of the artist as a mad genius unfettered by rules.
Romanticism dominated the theatre of most of Europe.
Many of the ideas and practices of Romanticism were evident in the late 18th- century Sturm und Drang movement of Germany led by Goethe Faust. Henrik Ibsen who worked in theatre as dramatist at the time, brings a different genre of drama which is usually performed at the time.
Bjorn Hemmer stated that for half of a century, Ibsen had devoted his life and his energies to the art of drama, and he had won international acclaim as the greatest and most influential dramatist of his time.
In his lifetime, his works was often considered as a scandal. When Victorian values was hold strongly in family life and in society of Europe.
Any challenge that against those values were judged as an immoral action and will provoke the anger of society. Ibsen's works investigate the realities that lay behind many walls in the European society at the time. On the surface, the middle-class homes gave an impression of success - and appeared to reflect a picture of a healthy and stable society. But Ibsen dramatizes the hidden conflicts in this society by opening the doors of those walls, and secret rooms of the bourgeois homes.
He shows what can be hiding behind those beautiful walls: Each drama at the time was expected to end with conclusions that are morally appropriate, in case that goodness will bring happiness, and immorality will only bring misery. But Ibsen challenged this understanding and belief of his day and destroys the illusion of the audience by bringing a different type of drama, realistic drama. We take for granted nowadays that almost any woman can have a career if she applies herself.
We take for granted that women can choose whether or not to marry, and whether or not to have children, and how many. According to Helena WojtczakWomen of the midth century had no such choices. Most lived in a state little better than slavery. Most women had little choice but to marry and upon doing so everything they owned, inherited and earned automatically belonged to their husband.
This meant that if an offence or felony was committed against her, only her husband could prosecute. Furthermore, rights to the woman personally - that is, access to her body - were his.
A Doll's House - Nora and Torvald by sara del on Prezi
Not only was this assured by law, but the woman herself agreed to it verbally: Wojtczak stated that every man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth.
He could take her children without reason and send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wife's inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes. Sometime, somewhere, all these things - and a great many more - happened. To give but one example, Susannah Palmer escaped from her adulterous husband in after suffering many years of brutal beatings, and made a new life.
She worked, saved, and created a new home for her children.
Her husband found her, stripped her of all her possessions and left her destitute, with the blessing of the law. In a fury she stabbed him, and was immediately prosecuted. From the explanation above, the writer concludes that there is a big gap and lack of relationship between husband and wife, which is the man as a husband has full authority on her wife and it strengthen by the law that occur at the time. What are the dimensions of the hypothetical ideal husband — wife relationship?
Barbara Jonesstated that the ideal family would have a spirit of easy sharing and a lack of possessiveness. There would be an open exchange of feelings, thoughts, ideas, good times, and humour. Communication between husband and wife is the key. A husband and wife relationship is based on love, respect and communication.
Husband — Wife Relationship; Communication in Marriage: According to Jonesa husband has to perform many important roles for working his marriage successfully. He and his wife must work equally towards marital growth and responsibility together. In islam view, It is very sad that this relationship which Allah SWT has established for the good has been made a source of contention, deception, trickery, tyranny, humiliation, and abuse.
This is not the way marriage is supposed to be. He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your hearts. The writer uses descriptive analysis method to describe about the husband-wife relationship, and position of woman as wife in a family. In this research, the writer uses two sources of data.
They are primary and secondary data. The secondary data is obtained from book, articles and information from the internet that discuss about drama, the relationship of husband-wife, the concept of marriage in 19th century European society, the position of woman as wife in a family and the inferiority of woman and feminism theory.
Based on the source of data before, the writer carried out the technique as follow, 1 Read carefully the drama script 7 times carefully and tried to find out the content of the drama. They are taken from books, article about the relationship of husband wife, marriage in 19th century European society, the position of woman as wife in a family and feminism theory.
Then, in achieving the objective of the research, the writer employs some techniques, they are: The condition between a husband and a wife in marriage of Nora and Helmer can be related to the theory of social feminism which is stated by Simone de Beauvoir and Mary Wollstonecraft. The first condition that shows the lack of marriage between Nora and Helmer is no equal level between them.
She finally realizes that her position in a family is inferior. It is strengthen by the dialogues below: And you have always been so kind to me.
But our home has been nothing but playroom. I thought it great fun when you played with me, just as they thought it great fun I played with them. That is what our marriage has been, Torvald. It implies that Nora feels she is inferior. Besides that, the condition of marriage between them that finally cannot be maintained also caused by there is no equation between Nora and Helmer as a husband and a wife.
Wollstonecraft accepts the definition of her time that women's sphere is the home, but she does not isolate the home from public life as many others did and as many still do. For Mary Wollstonecraft, the public life and domestic life are not separate, but connected. Men have duties in the family, too, and women have duties to the state. She believes that a stable marriage is a partnership between a husband and a wife. It is strengthen by her argument in her book A Vindication of Rights of Woman, which is stated that a marriage is a social contract between two individuals.
A woman thus needs to have equal knowledge and sense, to maintain the partnership. Moreover, the condition that shown in dialogue before strengthens the position of woman in a family is inferior. Wollstonecraft also strengthens that only when woman and man are equally free, and woman and man are equally dutiful in exercise of their responsibilities to family and state, can there be true freedom. As Mary Wollstonecraft has stated before, with equality between husband and wife, a stable marriage will emerge by itself.
And a stable marriage surely will represent a nice relationship in all aspects of family, including mutual understanding easy sharing and an open communication. But by the turbidity condition between Nora and Helmer in their marriage, the condition that occurs is contradicted with the statement that Mary had stated about a stable marriage before.
The condition that occurs in marriage of Nora and Helmer are lack of sharing mutual understanding and lack of communication.