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As the scale of this population aggregation becomes larger, the demand for interactions Thus together with Eq. (2), the relationship between the strength of .. The residential population data are drawn from the 6th census conducted in (dayline.info). This relationship is termed as the composition relationship. In this relationship both objects are heavily dependent on each other. In other words. "Hi, I am new, I have a report where there are 6 columns out of which first 5 columns have same value and the 6th column is number.
In order for the healing qualities of the therapeutic relationship to be determined, the American Psychological Association APA appointed a task force aiming at the empirical investigation of the counsellor-client relationship.
Clients found the therapeutic relationship effective when counsellors displayed characteristics such as being understanding, unbiased, friendly, trustworthy, gentle, non-judgmental, caring, open and supportive. When illustrating the type of relationship, most participants likened it to friendship, while also noticing the differences and all participants noted the importance of trust and comfort. They also found helpful the explanations or interpretations provided by the counsellors, the positive feedback and the ability to self-disclose personal information.
Likewise, Oliveira, Sousa, and Pazo Piresin their phenomenological study with three ex-clients of psychotherapy, found that the participants preferred a collaborative, nonjudgmental therapeutic relationship with a knowledgeable and competent counsellor. Thus, having an understanding counsellor who they could trust and open up to was imperative for the clients.
Finally, in a similar qualitative study of 16 participants, Sackett and Lawson found that clients valued a substantial and authentic bond with their counsellors, where they felt trust and, also, understood and accepted. Women as Clients in Therapeutic Relationships [ TOP ] Women constitute the vast majority of clients seeking help from counselling and psychotherapy e. Indeed, researchers and authors call for a gender inclusive therapeutic process and relationship, emphasizing the need for awareness in areas such as: For example, Bhati addressed the role of gender in therapeutic dyads and pointed out that across all stages of therapy, female clients who worked with a female therapist reported higher therapeutic alliance ratings in comparison to female clients who worked with a male therapist.
Likewise, Landes, Burton, King, and Sullivan researched the preferences of female college students and found that the participants reported higher levels of anticipated comfort self-disclosing to a female therapist. Concerning the therapeutic process, Ogrodniczuk, Piper, Joyce, and McCallum found that female clients who were randomly assigned to either interpretive or supporting therapy had better outcome in supportive therapy, which was less challenging and encouraged a more collaborative and trusting relationship.
More specifically, female clients preferred counsellors who were supportive when dealing with emotional issues, whereas on relationship issues, women tended to like a more directive approach, in which the counsellor advised them on what to do.
Thus, listening to female clients and the way that they construct relationships in therapy was a main goal of the study. The therapeutic relationship is a relationship that happens outside of the everyday social context of each person involved.
Therefore, the descriptions generated by the clients are usually overlooked. On the grounds of listening to the clients, aiming to study their lived experiences and exploring their point of view of the counselling relationship, the study was approached by using interpretative phenomenological analysis Smith, In this way, the focus is on exploring individual, subjective experiences and on understanding the patterns that form when clients share the ways that they relate to their counsellors.
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A second theoretical approach that informed the present study was feminist research. Thus, the main goals of the present study were: Participants [ TOP ] The participants of the study were 27 counselling and psychotherapy female clients. The duration of the sessions was between 2 months and 5 years, with a prerequisite of at least 8 sessions. The goal of this choice was to allow the participants to form and develop a therapeutic relationship that could be properly discussed and analysed Thompson, Seventeen of the clients visited a female counsellor and 10 a male one.
The study had no restrictions concerning the issues discussed in therapy. Some of the most prominent issues defined by the clients were anxiety and anxiety-related problems, depression, interpersonal relationships, self-awareness and specific events that needed sorting out. In terms of their occupation, 11 participants were employees of the private or the public sector, six were self-employed, five were university students and five were unemployed.
Thirteen of the participants were single, eight were married, two were engaged and four separated or divorced. Nine of them had children. Participants were recruited through an invitation letter that was sent to counselling services and counsellors and psychotherapists in private practice. The letter invited participation in the study and the purpose of the study and the anonymous character of the research were fully explained.
Interviews [ TOP ] The data for the present study was collected with the use of individual, semi-structured interviews. The interview question regarding the present study was the following: An informed consent letter explaining the goals of the study and its anonymous character was distributed and signed by all participants. All the interviews were conducted by the first author of the article, while the digital records were transcribed verbatim according to Smith For the purpose of the present article, back translation was used for every extract included.
While analysing the data, the first author repeatedly read the transcripts, made notes and then transformed the notes into specific themes, which were confirmed by the other two authors. The themes were examined in relation to one another and grounded within the transcripts. After this circular process, the super-ordinate themes and the subthemes were produced. The criteria used, in order for the methodological rigour of the study to be determined, were the systematic consideration of the themes, investigator triangulation, and reflexivity.
The triangulation was carried out with the help of two independent researchers who analysed the data and produced similar results. Results [ TOP ] The three super-ordinate themes that originated from the data analysis were the following: Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship [ TOP ] This super-ordinate theme focused on the definition that 17 participants gave to the unique relationship with their counsellor. In their attempt to define this relationship, the participants did not engage with terms used in the literature but, maybe in loss of a structured definition, they compared the therapeutic relationship to other interpersonal relationships.
These comparisons were not part of an interview schedule but were generated by the participants themselves. The comparisons included similarities, differences or analogies that the participants found with friendship, family relationships or other professional relationships. Thus, the three subthemes that were produced addressed the comparison of the counselling relationship to friendship, to family relationships or to other professional relationships.
Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship to Friendship [ TOP ] The most common comparison that 11 participants used in order to define the therapeutic relationship was that of friendship. An example is that of Ioanna, who hesitantly proceeded to liken the relationship with her therapist to friendship: We discuss so naturally. For example how does it feel when you are with a friend of yours and you chat about your news, and the discourse is very natural, it has a very natural flow, without you pressuring yourself to say or not to say things?
Did you understand what I mean? Although Ioanna hesitated to name her therapist her friend, maybe because she was well aware of the boundaries that are drawn in the therapeutic context, she described a relationship that is like a friendship, where she felt comfortable to talk. Another participant who seemed ambivalent about the definition of her relationship to her counsellor was Antonia.
For Antonia, initially, there was a negotiation whether or not to characterize this relationship as friendship, but she ended up accepting this definition because of the equality and the comfort that she experienced: But you cannot name it friendship. I think it is friendship. Although, you cannot open up yourself like this to a friend… But I would consider it friendship because we are equals, because we can comfortably discuss with each other. The reason why Antonia did not actually define her therapeutic relationship as friendship did not seem to be because of the boundaries, like in the experience of Ioanna, but because she could open up more freely to a counsellor than to her friends.
Nevertheless, she accepted friendship as the closest definition. In the following examples, the participants used the comparison in order to offer an analogy between the two types of relating, while also noting the differences. For instance, Danai seemed to experience the therapeutic relationship as the best version of friendship. As she stated in the following extract: I can talk very comfortably. Not friendly, not with that sense.
This is something very freeing. Danai, like Antonia, talked about the best qualities of the therapeutic relationship in comparison to friendship, but instead of linking the two, she emphasized the differences. In this contrast, the counselling relationship was the one that appeared to be more favoured. In the same vein, Kaiti contrasted the two kinds of relationship and found the therapeutic relationship to be better, although, similar to friendship: My relationship… I would say friendship.
Something more than friendship. She is a person that I feel very close to, to whom I could say my inner truths and this is very important. For most people who are very busy with their problems it is very important to be able to discuss your inner truths with a stranger. What is interesting in the above extract is that Kaiti simultaneously considered the therapeutic relationship to be better than friendship because of the closeness that she experienced, and also characterized her counsellor as a stranger.
Another example of the way that the counselling relationship is likened and contrasted to friendship was the experience of Aliki. She expressed that in this situation, she was the one who was the center of attention and her problems were the priority, whereas, in other friendships, her issues might be disregarded and the focus would soon be elsewhere: When you talk with your friend, you will sit down and talk about your problems and she will say: Then she will start talking about herself.
Here it is a little like an egotistical friendship [laughs]. This is the nature of this profession. The psychologist will not say that I have no reason to worry. Why did this happen?
Thus, she certainly did not experience her counsellor as her friend: There are boundaries [in the relationship with the counsellor], which means that she is not your friend. Almost all of the participants that attempted to define their relationship to their counsellor as a friendly one described characteristics such as closeness, equality, being able to talk easily, self-disclosure and being listened to and also the sense of an informal environment when it comes to sharing.
Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship to Family Relationships [ TOP ] Another way that participants illustrated the type of relationship that they experienced with their counsellor was by comparing the counselling relationship to family relationships. More specifically, for eight participants the counselling relationship was compared to a relationship with a parent or a sibling.
For example, Theano appeared to be saying that her counsellor provided the necessary support and acted like a person on whom she could lean on, like she would do with a father: I was feeling that he had a strong presence, where I could feel relaxed, where I could lean on to, where I could ask for his support.
Theano, here, seemed to talk about a gendered relationship, where her counsellor was being experienced in accordance to his gender.
The fact that her counsellor was male dredged up feelings of comfort, emotional support and strength. These were the characteristics that she associated with a father figure and could make her feel like a child.
Another participant who paralleled her counselling relationship to a parental one was Kleio. For Kleio, her therapist seemed to constitute the best version of a parental relationship.
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Therefore, she compared her relationship with her therapist to a father-daughter relationship, but also to a good father-daughter relationship. In her experience, her therapist was like a father who provided safety and unconditional acceptance and who reacted in a way a good father would. He is like a father, he supports me. He [the therapist] is like a good father.
Kleio appeared to experience her relationship with her counsellor in the same pattern as Theano. Thus, the counselling relationship was defined in comparison to a father-daughter relationship, where the parent provided support. However, Kleio did not distinguish between the genders, although she used some of the same qualities when describing this type of relating. Another participant who seemed to liken the therapeutic relationship with family relationships was Stella.
For Stella, her counsellor could resemble to both a mother and a sister: That is, she could advise me about something and at the same time I could trust her with anything, from the most significant to the most insignificant. When talking about a parental relationship with her counsellor, Stella seemed to be using the same pattern as Kleio and Theano; she described her counsellor as someone who could give her advice.
On the other hand, when she compared the counselling relationship to a sibling relationship, she talked about being able to talk more easily, a pattern which was prominent in the previous subtheme. From a phenomenological standpoint, the three experiences described above focused on the real counselling relationship, where the participants defined their relationship with their counsellor mostly as supportive and close. Stavroula on the other hand, appeared to be describing the counselling relationship from a framework of transference: I projected on him elements of motherhood, of fatherhood.
I felt that I had to be good for example. Like I had to prove to my therapist that I am good. He was like my daddy, who gave me his wisdom and I had to support that and to receive his approval. After some time this began to change and the projections stopped. Stavroula experienced her relationship with her counsellor as a type of parental relationship but she also explained that this was a projection on her behalf.
However, although she made a comparison, it was through a certain viewpoint and eventually she did not provide a description. When observing the experiences that were shared between the present and the previous subtheme, one could distinguish a gendered dimension of the way that the different experiences are being described.
More specifically, most of the participants who talked about the therapeutic relationship in terms of friendship worked with a female counsellor and all of the participants who likened the counselling relationship to a family relationship worked with a male counsellor or an older female counsellor. Taking in mind that friendship, as described by the participants, held the meaning of reciprocity and comfort, whereas, parental relationships held the meaning of support and acceptance, there emerge certain patterns concerning the role of gender in the description of the therapeutic relationship.
Therefore, the pattern of friendship may manifest a more equal relationship of the female counsellor-female client dyad, whereas, the parental pattern could be shaped around a difference of power between the client and the counsellor. Comparing the Therapeutic Relationship to Professional Relationships [ TOP ] Other interpersonal relationships that were used in order to describe the therapeutic relationship were those of the gynecologist-patient relationship or of a non-specific professional relationship.
All these comparisons seemed to be made in order for the participants to determine the closeness or the distance that they felt towards their therapists. An example of a participant who likened her counselling relationship to one with a gynecologist is Kaiti, who stated that: The psychotherapist is the same as the gynecologist, she comes very close, she gets into you [laughs].
She gets into your core and learns everything about you. Kaiti, in her account, tried to describe an intimate relationship and a very personal one. She expressed that opening up to a stranger was very difficult and she used the comparison with the gynecologist because of its uniqueness and its intimate nature.
The same example, but from a different viewpoint, was used by Danai, who experienced feelings of intimacy but considered them to be a reason that kept her away from a possible erotic relationship with her counsellor.
But I think that the relationship with the therapist resembles the relationship with the gynecologist. I could maybe see my gynecologist erotically at some point, but when he has seen me giving birth the chances are decreased. In a previous subtheme, Danai compared her therapeutic relationship to friendship, expressing feelings of closeness. Here, she talked about how this closeness could also be the reason for setting internal boundaries. Thus, the way she experienced her counsellor made her feel less concerned about seeing him erotically.
Setting boundaries was the main pattern that six participants used in order to liken their therapeutic relationship to a strict professional one. The participants here seemed to emphasize the distance between a counsellor and a client.
For example, Foteini stated: First of all let me tell you that I am a person who has dependency issues, with people. So I knew from the beginning… I had said to myself that I would have with my therapist a strictly professional relationship. The past experiences of Foteini may have shaped her need to keep a protective distance from her therapist, in order for her to feel safe.
In a way, the description of her relationship as strictly professional underlined an ethical dimension of the therapy process.
On the other hand, Eirini talked about her need to experience distance throughout the development of her relationship with her counsellor: I told her that I wanted to talk with her using our last names. I am not interested in some other kind or relationship, for example friendship… at all…just the professional type. I wanted for her to be distant, although I wanted a sweet and relatively communicative person, which she is, but apart from that my relationship with her is exactly as it was from the start.
Eirini appeared to be using the comparison of a professional relationship in the context of boundaries, although, she did not explain why she needed her distance. Her focus point was that this was something she needed in order for her relationship to be functional for her, albeit this counselling relationship lasted for almost two years.
The pattern, though, remained the same; even though the counselling relationship is a professional relationship, when the participants described only that element of it, they made it in order to talk about boundaries. Experiencing the Therapeutic Relationship [ TOP ] As long as the counselling experience was concerned, the majority of the participants stated that they were satisfied with their counsellor and shared mostly positive experiences and feelings about their counselling relationship.
In the present super-ordinate theme, the experiences, the feelings and the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship are explained. The two sub-themes that were produced concerned a the feelings of trust and safety and b the experiences of the closeness - distance spectrum. Trust [ TOP ] The feeling of trust was discussed by 11 participants and was focused both on the comfort, that the participants felt with their counsellor, and on the belief that their counsellor would help them with their issues.
As Kleio stated in the following extract: Auxiliary information Footer Customers appreciate fast responding websites and ultra-low page load times. Mobile technology and the innovation coming along with increasing reliance on smartphones and tablets are showing no signs of slowing down. Top online retailers understand the need to deliver website content efficiently from Web servers to the tiny real estate of mobile screens.
Getting it right with thoroughly designed websites dedicated to mobile platforms enables customers to make quick and educated purchase decisions that ultimately create never-ending revenue streams for online businesses.
And if you still plan to overlook mobile website performance, you might want to reconsider the opportunities and success otherwise achievable mostly with a dedicated, speed-optimized mobile website. Common Business Mistakes that Kill Website Performance Online marketplaces — like battlegrounds of the ancient Greeks — are high-stake competitive platforms where only the most diligent survive.
And as with all high-stakes battles, human factors decision errors, blunders, and ignorance contribute significantly toward the outcome of online business competitions.
Yet, online businesses and webmasters responsible for maintaining high-performance and fully-optimized websites tend to overlook crucial web design elements that cripple site load times. And the consequences are usually as hazardous as the Trojan Horse penetrating through fortified defenses and taking full control over the City of Troy, despite the size and dominion of the Trojan Army. Competition for online business success is just as intense if only a bit less violent.
The fight for customer attention boils down to delivering the requested content most efficiently and accurately, irrespective of the company size and past laurels. And just like human blunders and ignorance dictating the outcome of the Trojan War, common mistakes killing website performance tend to determine the outcome of online business competition — fastest to the finish line wins the race!
Contrary to the popular sentiment, speed optimization is ideally implemented across all stages of website development, and not just after building the entire site, which is only when website owners realize the need to push for website performance optimization. Final tweaks and speed optimization add-ons implemented after developing websites does improve page speed though, bringing down the load time to at least reach the Gap of Death.
But even within this performance zone, conversion rates go down by 7 percent for each second of delay after the expected page load time of 2 seconds. On the other hand, website owners wary of speed optimization tactics can aim for higher website performance by avoiding the following deadly mistakes as well: Mediocre Web Hosting Service The mistake of opting for a mediocre Web hosting service can live forever. Global availability of a vast array of hosting options is pushing businesses and hobbyists to establish their presence in the cyber world.
The demand for cost-effective web hosting services is rising exponentially, and hosting providers are more than willing to compromise service quality in accumulating market share with low-cost tiers. Mediocre web hosts selling cost-effective services continue to maximize profitability by hosting thousands of websites on single instances of bloated Apache stacks.
Un-optimized servers running thousands of public websites on a single server stack is particularly harmful to ecommerce websites characterized by uncontrollable web traffic spikes, multimedia content and large website files. Web hosting services Perhaps then, investing time and money in pursuing the highest quality web hosting services is key to maintaining high-performance websites generating vast revenue streams by attracting visitor attention efficiently and accurately.
Giving Way to Bandwidth Thieves Website speed optimization is an ongoing and evolving process and goes well beyond subscribing to the best web hosting services in the world. Some business decisions intended to maximize revenue by altering website design and features adversely affect website performance by stealing size-able chunks from the bandwidth allotted to each individual visitor.
Too Many Widgets or Plugins Additional features and functionality always pleases website owners and developers. Widgets and plugins enable convenient changes to existing websites along with a slight burden on website performance. On a clients site, we saw that it added KB to the overall page weight, which is not good!
Facebook widget requests Keeping add-ons limited to a bare minimum is essential to maintaining optimum website performance — even plugins installed to the same website core compete in delivering the quickest response to browser requests, ultimately draining bandwidth.
Sometimes the quality and functionality of plugins installed matters far more than the number itself. Plugins that query large streams of data to perform complex operations should do this off-server, and not within website hosting environments such as WordPress.
Too Many Ads and External Services Tempting as it may seem, selling too much real estate to third-party advertisers drastically degrades website performance. Too many ads or slow loading ads drive bounce rates and negatively impact online marketability. The financial losses that come with high bounce rates outweigh the monetary benefits of handing over vast website spaces to advertisers.
Pingdom external services External services typically bring with them two problems. One is brought about by sheer volume, the other has to do with waiting until they load. The more calls you have, the more you wait, the higher the load on your own server and the higher chance you have of bumping into the second issue.
If the service is called in the header and there is a service interruption your page will simply refuse to load. Intrusive pop-up ads further aggravate visitors into abandoning websites at even higher rates. Affiliate code, even just those few additional lines of script take up valuable memory space on the hosting environment and require additional processing cycles in delivering the content to end-users.
Nevertheless, online advertisement is the primary source of income for many online businesses think Google and Facebook! Bloated Design Theme and Incompatible Multimedia Tempting website design themes and multimedia content are head turners for online traffic.
That is if the content even reaches the eyes of impatient visitors fast enough. High-quality images and videos large pixels, large file size take longer in downloading onto requesting browsers, whereas low quality, lightweight graphics barely capture user attention despite their lower load times. However, graphics intensive content is not always the deciding factor in driving conversions and sales. This is especially true for ecommerce websites that must contain fast-loading product images and videos describing the value of products, and not necessarily their visual beauty.
Compatibility issues also affect multimedia and application performance for certain browsers and geographic locations. Take Google Chrome and Shockwave Flash as an example. The two rarely play nice to each other. Similarly, government restrictions can also prevent specific multimedia content from reaching local visitors.
Websites with non-functional multimedia content take excessive client-server communication cycles to reach requesting browsers, ultimately deteriorating website performance. It is, however, up to website owners to ensure streamlined serviceability across all browser platforms, device form factors and geographic locations as government policies and browser compatibility potentially changes over time, and most often, unpredictability as well.
Streamline content Fast loading and fully functional multimedia content is necessary for ecommerce merchants to keep hold of website visitors. But when too many single-lines of code take space on the website back-end, web content assets and plugins with lengthy code end up competing for tiny memory spaces in short processing cycles. As a result, the popular physics phenomenon of non-linearity kicks in, and each component performs unpredictably, usually consuming more processing cycles than expected.
From the perspective of end users, excessive services are often unnecessary or at most, considered secondary to the actual content portrayed by the website. Many websites host more than 80 assets images, plugins, add-ons and other multimedia contentand all of this content is not necessarily delivered to requesting browsers as per user preferences.
Additional investments in developing media-rich websites ultimately backfire when the information actually requested to reach end-users is held by irrelevant sign-up forms, analytics code and other content adding unnecessary weight to the website.
Smartphones The competition to capture the attention of mobile users is even more intense due to slow loading mobile websites and lower visitor patience levels. And on average, 3 in 4 people will abandon a mobile website if it takes any longer than 5 seconds to load, whereas an average mobile takes even longer periods of seconds to load. Excessive delays in mobile page load time occur mostly when websites are not specifically optimized and designed to deliver high performance on a mobile device interface.
Even with dedicated smartphone-optimized pages, mobile users are not always redirected to the intended mobile-versions of desktop website pages requested from mobile browsers. Redirects are instructions that send users seeking one website URL to another one that supposedly contains the exact information requested by users. Redirects are most effective for mobile users searching for desktop versions of website pages that must be mapped well to equivalent mobile versions in delivering the best mobile website experience.
Doing so inaccurately keeps users from switching between unwanted website files until they reach the right one. This causes unnecessary delays in loading the information actually sought by end-users.
Bad redirects Website owners are eventually responsible for losing competitive advantages in the mobile space when the mobile web traffic is simply redirected toward irrelevant desktop website version, instead of delivering a speed-optimized mobile solution for mobile visitors. Websites not speed-optimized for mobile devices suffer from common issues hampering mobile user experience.
Issues such as faulty redirects, unplayable videos, bloated images and graphics, irrelevant cross-linking and unnecessary assets delivered to mobile visitors degrade website performance and ultimately drive bounce rates. Only 10 percent of the waiting period is defined by the HTML response to browser requests, and the remaining 90 percent of the delay is caused in rendering pages, parsing HTML, executing code scripts and retrieving embedded assets.
Website performance overhaul with optimization tools and script tweaks can scrape off sizeable chunks from page load times, but perhaps not as effectively as developing a speed optimized website from scratch. And the latter is more of a marketing strategy, a business decision and slight awareness in avoiding the most common mistakes that can potentially ruin online businesses by killing website performance.
Web traffic and search engine ranking is primarily a vanity metric for website performance. Important as they are, neither is more indicative of online business success than sales figures and conversion rates.