Anne Boleyn and Bloody Mary - The Anne Boleyn Files
Anne Boleyn's relationship with Princess Mary Tudor was doomed from the start. Mary was her mother's fierce partisan when it came to the Great Matter and. Princess Mary Tudor was the apple of her father's eye for many years prior Anne Boleyn returning to England. Freshly back from her duties in. Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from to as the second wife of King Henry VIII. . The former lady-in-waiting and confidante to Queen Mary I wrote of Anne . If Cavendish is to be believed, their relationship was celibate. befriended Sir Thomas Wyatt, who was one of the greatest poets of the Tudor reign.
This meant that he had been living in sin with Catherine of Aragon all these years, though Catherine hotly contested this and refused to concede that her marriage to Arthur had been consummated. It also meant that his daughter Mary was a bastard, and that the new Pope Clement VII would have to admit the previous Pope's mistake and annul the marriage. Henry's quest for an annulment became euphemistically known as the " King's Great Matter ". She determined that she would yield to his embraces only as his acknowledged queen.
She began to take her place at his side in policy and in state, but not yet in his bed. There is anecdotal evidence, related to biographer George Wyatt by her former lady-in-waiting Anne Gainsford that Anne brought to Henry's attention a heretical pamphlet, perhaps Tyndale 's " The Obedience of a Christian Man " or one by Simon Fish called "Supplication for Beggars," which cried out to monarchs to rein in the evil excesses of the Catholic Church. She was sympathetic to those seeking further reformation of the Church, and actively protected scholars working on English translations of the scriptures.
According to Maria Dowling"Anne tried to educate her waiting-women in scriptural piety" and is believed to have reproved her cousin, Mary Sheltonfor "having 'idle poesies' written in her prayer book.
Further, the most recent edition of Ives 's biography admits that Anne may very well have had a personal spiritual awakening in her youth which spurred her on, not just as catalyst but expediter for Henry's Reformation, though the process took a number of years.
Insweating sickness broke out with great severity.
Anne Boleyn - Wikipedia
In Londonthe mortality rate was great and the court was dispersed. Henry left London, frequently changing his residence; Anne Boleyn retreated to the Boleyn residence at Hever Castle, but contracted the illness; her brother-in-law, William Carey, died. Henry sent his own physician to Hever Castle to care for Anne,  and shortly afterwards, she recovered. It soon became the one absorbing object of Henry's desires to secure an annulment from Catherine. In William Knightthe King's secretary, was sent to Pope Clement VII to sue for the annulment of his marriage to Catherine, on the grounds that the dispensing bull of Pope Julius II permitting him to marry his brother's widow, Catherine, had been obtained under false pretences.
Henry also petitioned, in the event of his becoming free, a dispensation to contract a new marriage with any woman even in the first degree of affinity, whether the affinity was contracted by lawful or unlawful connection.
This clearly referred to Anne. In the end he had to return with a conditional dispensation, which Wolsey insisted was technically insufficient. But the Pope never had empowered his deputy to make any decision. Convinced that Wolsey's loyalties lay with the Pope, not England, Anne, as well as Wolsey's many enemies, ensured his dismissal from public office in George CavendishWolsey's chamberlain, records that the servants who waited on the king and Anne at dinner in in Grafton heard her say that the dishonour that Wolsey had brought upon the realm would have cost any other Englishman his head.
Henry replied, "Why then I perceive Public support remained with Queen Catherine. One evening in the autumn ofAnne was dining at a manor house on the river Thames and was almost seized by a crowd of angry women.
Anne just managed to escape by boat. Following these acts, Thomas More resigned as Chancellorleaving Cromwell as Henry's chief minister. The ambassador from Milan wrote in that it was essential to have her approval if one wanted to influence the English government, a view corroborated by an earlier French ambassador in During this period, Anne Boleyn played an important role in England's international position by solidifying an alliance with France.
She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, Gilles de la Pommeraie. Anne and Henry attended a meeting with the French king at Calais in winterin which Henry hoped to enlist the support of Francis I of France for his intended marriage. On 1 SeptemberHenry granted her suo jure the Marquessate of Pembrokean appropriate peerage for a future queen;  as such she became a rich and important woman: The Pembroke lands and the title of Earl of Pembroke had been held by Henry's great-uncle,  and Henry performed the investiture himself.
Her father, already Viscount Rochford, was created Earl of Wiltshire. Henry also came to an arrangement with Anne's Irish cousin and created him Earl of Ormond. At the magnificent banquet to celebrate her father's elevation, Anne took precedence over the Duchesses of Suffolk and Norfolk, seated in the place of honour beside the King which was usually occupied by the Queen.
The conference at Calais was something of a political triumph, but even though the French government gave implicit support for Henry's remarriage and Francis I himself held private conference with Anne, the French King maintained alliances with the Pope which he could not explicitly defy.
Events now began to move at a quick pace.
On 23 MayCranmer who had been hastened, with the Pope's assent, into the position of Archbishop of Canterbury recently vacated by the death of Warham sat in judgement at a special court convened at Dunstable Priory to rule on the validity of the King's marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
He thereupon declared the marriage of Henry and Catherine null and void. Five days later, on 28 MayCranmer declared the marriage of Henry and Anne to be good and valid. Fisher refused to recognise Henry VIII's marriage to Anne Boleyn Catherine was formally stripped of her title as queen and Anne was consequently crowned queen consort on 1 June in a magnificent ceremony at Westminster Abbey with a banquet afterwards.
Unlike any other queen consort, Anne was crowned with St Edward's Crownwhich had previously been used to crown only a monarch. In accordance with tradition she wore white, and on her head a gold coronet beneath which her long dark hair hung down freely. It was only then that Pope Clement at last took the step of announcing a provisional sentence of excommunication against the King and Cranmer. He condemned the marriage to Anne, and in Marchhe declared the marriage to Catherine legal and again ordered Henry to return to her.
In late parliament declared Henry "the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England". On 14 Mayin one of the realm's first official acts protecting Protestant ReformersAnne wrote a letter to Thomas Cromwell seeking his aid in ensuring that English merchant Richard Herman be reinstated a member of the merchant adventurers in Antwerp and no longer persecuted simply because he had helped in "setting forth of the New testament in English.
The child was born slightly prematurely on 7 September Between three and four in the afternoon, Anne gave birth to a girl, who was christened Elizabethprobably in honour of either or both Anne's mother Elizabeth Howard and Henry's mother, Elizabeth of York. All but one of the royal physicians and astrologers had predicted a son for them and the French king had already been asked to stand as his godfather.
Now the prepared letters announcing the birth of a prince had an s hastily added to them to read princes[s] and the traditional jousting tournament for the birth of an heir was cancelled.
Henry soothed his wife's fears by separating Mary from her many servants and sending her to Hatfield Housewhere Princess Elizabeth would be living with her own sizeable staff of servants, and where the country air was thought better for the baby's health.
There were more than servants to tend to her personal needs, everyone from priests to stable-boys, and more than 60 maids-of-honour who served her and accompanied her to social events.
She also employed several priests who acted as her confessorschaplains, and religious advisers. One of these was Matthew Parkerwho would become one of the chief architects of Anglican thought during the reign of Anne's daughter, Elizabeth I. Anne Boleyn's sharp intelligence, political acumen and forward manners, although desirable in a mistress, were, at the time, unacceptable in a wife.
He now called Mary his "greatest enemy" and told ambassadors she was trying to incite rebellion against him. Anne is often portrayed as having been spiteful and vindictive to her stepdaughter, but the documentary evidence for their relationship actually indicates that Anne tried several times to reconcile with Mary, or to at least make peace. She first sent Mary a message, offering to intercede with the king on her behalf if she would but acknowledge Anne as queen.
Mary sent back a "puzzled" response saying she knew of no queen in England but her mother, but if Lady Pembroke wished to assist her in reuniting with her father, she would be grateful. According to legend, Anne and Mary were once in the chapel of Eltham at the same time.
Mary Tudor and Anne Boleyn, by Sarah Bryson
A lady in waiting erroneously informed Anne that Mary had bowed to her, but Anne hadn't noticed. She sent Mary an apologetic note in which Anne explained she hadn't seen Mary's symbolic submission to her, but hoped this would be the beginning of friendly relations between the two. Mary's ladies brought the note to her, saying it was from the queen.
Mary retorted that the note couldn't be from the queen because it wasn't from Katharine. The story might not be true, but it illustrates the impasse of these two women. Anne was exasperated and frustrated by this. She'd tried kindness and patience, and that didn't work. He expected his daughter to be obedient, and her defiance was infuriating.
Henry ordered that Mary was to go serve her new half-sister Elizabeth as a maid, hoping to break her "stiff-necked Spanish pride. Who sent these instructions? Most history books attribute them to Anne, but I haven't seen documentary evidence of it.
Likely, Eustace Chapuys heard of it and attributed it to Anne, as he did every cruel action Henry took toward his daughter. Despite the multiple conversations Chapuys had with Henry about the princess in which Henry restated his hostility to the girl for her refusal to obey, Chapuys believed it was Anne who put him in this "perverse temper. Mary was truly Henry's daughter.
Her will was iron. She would not bend. Her always-fragile health suffered, but Henry was unsympathetic. As far as he was concerned, her misery could end as soon as she was once again an obedient daughter, but until then, she could suffer in a situation of her own making.
We can't know how Anne felt about Princess Mary. If we accept the position of Eustace Chapuys, Anne despised her, but he's the sole source for most of this "information," and it's well-known that he was deeply biased, and not above reporting snippets of gossip as fact, as long as it made Anne look bad.
Chapuys quoted Anne as saying that "[Mary] is my death, and I am hers," meaning, "That girl will be the death of me, or I'll be the death of her.
Chapuys also reported Anne told her brother if Henry left for France and made Anne regent, she'd take it as a chance to execute the girl, to which George replied the king might be upset. Anne supposedly said she didn't care if it meant her own death. Again, Chapuys reports these words literally, as statements of intent, but people sometimes say things they don't really mean in the heat of the moment. Anne is also known to have had a macabre sense of humor and may have even been joking about it in order to relieve stress.
And in this particular situation, we have to question whether they actually said them at all. Chapuys never gives a source for who overheard these supposed statements, only that it was someone he trusted. Why would Anne be stupid enough to publicly threaten to murder someone? Who knows how many layers of " the telephone game " the story went through before it got to Chapuys's eager ears? Some historians acknowledge Chapuys's errors and biases, but then go on to report his words as established fact, basing judgments about Anne's actions and character on them.
Anne tried one last time when Katharine died.
She told Mary she would find a second mother in Anne if Mary would obey her father and extend just the minimal courtesies. Mary retorted she would obey her father as far as her conscience would allow - which was, essentially, a flat-out refusal.
Soon afterward, Chapuys reported a strange incident. He said Mary found a letter in the chapel, addressed to her guardian, Lady Shelton.