What Is the Symbiotic Relationship Between Aphids and Ants? | Animals - dayline.info
Zh Obshch Biol. Mar-Apr;65(2) [Symbiotic relationships between ants and aphids]. [Article in Russian]. Novgorodova TA(1). Author information. Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. Common So-called dairying ants have a mutualistic relationship with aphids, tending them for .. Aphids harbour a vertically transmitted (from parent to its offspring) obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola, the primary symbiont, inside. PDF | The classical and contemporary literature devoted to symbiotic relationships between ants and aphids was analyzed. The most studied.
[Symbiotic relationships between ants and aphids].
Once a phloem vessel is punctured, the sap, which is under pressure, is forced into the aphid's food canal. This suggests aphids, and potentially, all the phloem-sap feeding species of the order Hemiptera, consume xylem sap for reasons other than replenishing water balance.
Aphids avoid this fate by osmoregulating through several processes.
Sucrose concentration is directly reduced by assimilating sucrose toward metabolism and by synthesizing oligosaccharides from several sucrose moleculesthus reducing the solute concentration and consequently the osmotic pressure. Furthermore, water is transferred from the hindgutwhere osmotic pressure has already been reduced, to the stomach to dilute stomach content.
What Is the Symbiotic Relationship Between Aphids and Ants?
This is the only known example of photoheterotrophy in animals. The carotene pigments in aphids form a layer close to the surface of the cuticle, ideally placed to absorb sunlight.
On this it may alternate between sexual and asexual generations holocyclic or alternatively, all young may be produced by parthenogenesiseggs never being laid anholocyclic. Some species can have both holocyclic and anholocyclic populations under different circumstances but no known aphid species reproduce solely by sexual means.
The overwintering eggs that hatch in the spring result in females, called fundatrices stem mothers. Reproduction typically does not involve males parthenogenesis and results in live birth viviparity. The young emerge from the mother soon after hatching. As the eggs begin to develop immediately after ovulation, an adult female can house developing female nymphs which already have parthenogenetically developing embryos inside them.
This telescoping of generations enables aphids to increase in number with great rapidity.
The offspring resemble their parent in every way except size. Thus, a female's diet can affect the body size and birth rate of more than two generations daughters and granddaughters. For example, some species of cabbage aphids like Brevicoryne brassicae can produce up to 41 generations of females in a season.
Thus, one female hatched in spring can theoretically produce billions of descendants, were they all to survive. In autumn, aphids reproduce sexually and lay eggs.
Environmental factors such as change in photoperiod and temperatureor perhaps a lower food quantity or quality, causes females to parthenogenetically produce sexual females and males. The eggs survive the winter and hatch into winged alate or wingless females the following spring. Farmers hate aphids because they do so much crop damage. They pierce the vascular systems of plants to feed on their juices, extracting protein but excreting sugar, which their bodies don't need.
This residue is called honeydew and many other insects, including ants, lap it up.
Symbiosis -- Defensive Examples
To Ants, Aphids Are Livestock When an aphid-hunting ant comes upon a herd of his quarry, he returns to the nest, leaving a trail of "recruitment" pheromones for worker ants to follow to the source. From then on, the aphids are effectively enslaved by the ants.
First, they're drugged with a tranquilizing chemical excreted from the ants' feet, slowing down their speed of movement by about a third. To make doubly sure the aphids don't get any ideas about taking off, ants may also bite off their wings or secrete chemicals that impair wing development.
To "milk" the aphids, ants massage their abdomens with their antennae, stimulating the release of honeydew. And, if the ants want more dietary protein, they eat the aphids.
Aphid Husbandry Ants control the reproductive capacities of aphids to boost numbers of the most useful while phasing out the least productive, mainly by eating them.Ants and aphids: a mutualistic relationship
As a study involving yellow meadow ants in northern Europe showed, they do this by exploiting the female aphid's ability to clone herself.
The ant colonies studied were inside a 4. Even in mounds where more than one species of aphid was being farmed, 95 percent of all chambers contained aphids produced from a single clone. Though we can't know how aphids feel about their arrangement with ants, experts think that the bugs willingly trade their freedom for the protection ants offer from parasites and predators such as ladybugs.