- Departamento de Ciências da Vida - Universidade de Coimbra
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The results obtained mainly stresses that the mimetic effect on copy successful university actions, university top manager s emphasis on both stakeholder orientations and a better communication among managers from different university structures have positive effects on a RSO and PSO. Furthermore, the findings show that, to achieve some important university performance 7 8 goals as reputation, a responsive stakeholder orientation is not sufficient, thus a proactive stakeholder orientation is also needed.
From a practical perspective, this study suggests that, in order to enhance the RSO and PSO of their institutions, university managers should be acting especially on the emphasis shown to SO, on fostering the cohesion among the different university structures, on reducing as much as possible the level of complexity of the university organization and on trying to imitate the proper stakeholder oriented behaviours of other public universities.
Furthermore, our results should encourage policy-makers to transform these institutions bearing in mind that both, RSO and PSO, could become important sources of competitive advantage. In this line of reasoning we suggest governments the need to establish policies that encourage the implementation of university strategies oriented to their stakeholders, in order to break the current scenario of their public universities.
Also, in sight of these results, we encourage governments to promote the implementation of proactive strategies among public universities as a way to improve the reputation of such institutions. Nevertheless, in the last decades, it has been addressed within a more specific scope due to its complexity. Several studies contributed to a greater understanding of the IE concept, however the literature demands the need for a more integrated framework distinguishing domestic and international new ventures DNVs vs.
The present study analyzes the influence of the entrepreneur s personality and entrepreneurial characteristics on the firm characteristics and the influence of the latter on internationalization. Therefore, this research attempts to accomplish the following objectives: Additionally, an association was found between individual entrepreneurial orientation and individual entrepreneurial intent.
There was also empirical support for relationships between individual entrepreneurial characteristics and the firm s entrepreneurial orientation and international orientation.
Furthermore, international orientation was positively related to the type of venture international vs domestic and the firm s export percentage. The present research provided a different level approach highlighting the role of the entrepreneur whose personality and entrepreneurial characteristics are determinant to the firm s identity and its internationalization.
They are believed to be closely related to how MNEs take decisions concerning market selection, market commitment, entry modes, exit decisions, and many others. Nevertheless, the extant literature covering these subjects presents conflicting and ambiguous results. In addition, some studies have shown that these constructs may have an interactive impact on foreign investment decisions.
The data was collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire send to the total population of Brazilian MNEs. The questionnaire was posted in the internet or sent by. The model was tested using structural equations modelling.
Official Conference Program Knowledge Development and Exchange in International Business Networks
Although the model presented good fit, two of the research hypotheses were rejected. The hypothesis of an impact of cultural distance on the perception of political risk of a given country was empirically supported in the study.
The sign of the relationship was negative, suggesting that a higher perception of cultural distance was associated to a lower perception of political risk. The impact of remittances on households wellbeing: This fact makes Albania one of the most potential receivers of remittances in Europe.
The paper uses a large nationallyrepresentative household survey from Albania to analyze how the receipt of international remittances affects the well-being level of the households. The welfare level is measured by the extent of the subjective self-assessment of the same households.
The propensity score matching approach is applied for this research. The results indicate that the Albanian households involved in different economic activities are more likely to be economically independent.
Additionally, families with higher number of females are focused on the presence of remittances as they are considered strong protective instruments of their well-being. We also conclude that households with the presence of remittances perceive having a better life in comparison with households that do not receive remittances. The same group reflects the conviction that has been able to experience more improvement in their well-being level when compared to the households that did not receive remittances.
The world has witnessed mass exodus of people from one country to the other, driven by a search towards better lives and most of these migrations present movements from developing countries to developed ones.
Economic conditions are the main factors influencing migration and remittances are the most widespread and important migrant economic activity. International remittance is defined as the money and goods that are transferred by migrant workers working outside of their origin countries to their households families and friends in the home country.
During the last decades, especially with the start of the 21 st century, the economic analysis of remittances has experienced a dramatic renewal, becoming one of the key issues in economic development. Its relevance has increased during this time and it will continue to grow in the future. That is one of the main reasons the issue of remittances has increasingly captured the attention of policymakers from both developed and developing countries.
Analysis made during indicates that were more than million international migrants in the world. In other words, 3 percent of the world population was living outside their country of birth.
Moreover, ininternational migrants sent home to families and friends a total amount of remittances which was three times more than the total of global foreign aid. The absolute values of remittances indicate their economic importance to many countries, but their volume relative to income flows and other indicator variables establish this result in a clearer manner.
The microeconomics of remittances has been the focus of many scholars since the mid of the 20 th century, but a deep change surfaced in the early s when the role of information and social interactions where included in explaining transfer behavior. The topic of migration, remittances and their development has always been accompanied with controversial analysis and results between researches and policy makers. Johnson and WhitelawStark and later again Bloom, Lucas and Stark are known as the pioneers that analyzed the determinants of remittances.
Lucas and Stark were the first to formulate a formal model for analyzing the remittances of migrant workers. Remittances present a very complex area of study with many clues and 13 14 according to Lucas and Stark, migrant workers would remit for a variety of reasons, ranging from pure altruism to pure self-interest.
The decision to send money was conditioned by income, the motivation to share the income with the family of origin. Under the study of remittance motivations, migrant workers could be classified as altruistic if their remittances increase with declines in family income at home, while remittances with self-interest motives would be considered dominant if they were positively related with family income at home.
Driven by the first motivation, the transfer of wealth due to altruism, the migrant intends to deal with those he left behind. The second motivation, self-interest, is considered the aspiration of the migrant, for example, to inherit or the desire to invest in their country of origin and then to ensure that such investments are treated in a satisfactory manner by the family of their home country.
Taylor also continued developing the theory and sustained the noticeable role of remittances for the enterprise risk diversification of the family, as the labor income of the migrant is not correlated with the revenue derived from the income of the family residing in the country of origin.
Another facet of emigration consisted in the behavior of the migrant once he arrives at the destination country and his continued relationship with the family of the origin country. It should also be admitted that the effect of remittances and migration at the local level of migrant s home country is conditioned not only from the amount, distribution and weight of such remittances on the income of the family of origin.
Sometimes, it is the indirect impact of remittances on the local community that is more effective than the previously listed factors.
This kind of impact depends on the behavior of the family of the migrant -the context in which they live Taylor As many cross-country analysis and evidence from household surveys suggest that migration and remittances have some potential to reduce poverty in the origin communities, their increasing volume and potential impact on the development of remittance receiving countries has become an important topic of concern for policy makers at national and international level.
This study analyzes the determinants of Albanian remittances from a microeconomic perspective. Albania is one of the top destination countries for remittances inflow.
The vision of Albania in was that of a country with low income levels facing several internal and external problems of great importance. Over the past two decades, Albania has continued to defy the problems and it is a notable fact that the country has made progress in creating conditions to facilitate the economic growth and to reduce the poverty level.
Data compiled by Migration and Remittances Factbookindicates that during the yearAlbania was characterized with nearly 1, High values of migration outflows that have been unfolded during these decades, since the collapse of the totalitarian system, have been accompanied also with records in remittance inflows.
Although remittances have fluctuated over time, they have been a major source of income for the major part of Albanian households and for the national economy as well. The last data available from the World Bank is for the year During the level of remittances inflows as a percentage of GDP was just 8.
And again, although it is one of the lowest values during the last two decades, it still presents a considerable level that classifies Albania into the group of top Remittance-Receiving Countries.
It has been implemented in the framework of the National Strategy for Development and Integration with the purpose to create a policy evaluation system. As explained from the World s Bank staff, the first Albania LSMS was conducted infollowed by,and surveys.
The survey we are focused on is based on a sample of 6, households. The techniques used in the survey of are similar to those of the previous year, however it might be noted the expansion of the sample size from the past surveys to the last one.
The sample of 6, households is randomly selected. In the next selection, 8 households were chosen again in a random way for every Primary Selection Unit to be the protagonist of the interview prepared from the staff. At the end, the survey was completed with a total of 6, questionnaires filled out by the households. Although it presents the core center of our study, the Living Standard Measurement Survey of Albania was not designed as a migration or remittances survey.
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In fact, the survey seems to be exhaustive since the collected information covers topics related to demographic characteristics, expenditure, education, health employment, labor, communication and so on, without neglecting migration and remittances.
This is the reason that the final dataset used during the research was obtained not only from components related with 16 17 the topics of remittance and migration but also with reference to the available information from the other modules. The information extracted from the module of international migration was related to the actual presence of the phenomenon of migration in the surveyed family. The acknowledgment that at least one of the household members is living abroad was intended to confirm the presence of migration in that specific household, otherwise no.
Referring to table 1, the binary variable that was created indicates that 1, households have members involved in the migration Table 1 Emigration Frequency Percentage Not Present Present Total Observations With respect to remittances, there are two basic questions asked in the survey that have been used to implement a dummy variable which accounts for the presence or absence of remittances: Table 2 Remittance Frequency Percentage Not present Present Total Observations As noted in table 2, only families have received remittances in kind, in cash or both of them.
In fact, from the whole sample of the survey under discussion, families There is basic information of interest for the sample into analysis that should be treated in order to implement a comprehensive framework of the model we are going to build. From the random selection of the 6, households, the geographical distribution of the sample is divided between four regions: The high percentage of Albanian households living in Greece and Italy is an acceptable and a logic situation since these countries are not so distant from Albania and because of historical and economical background of the country.
Table 4 Country Destination Frequency Percentage Greece Italy Kosovo Macedonia Other Total Observations 19 In order to take a further look into this filtrated sample, it is important to take into consideration some aspects of our emigrants table 5: In fact, from the dataset, it can be easily determined that The mean age of the households seems to be a young age There were Also, the method used to investigate this important phenomenon varies from one group of authors to the other.
As we are going to understand the possible variables that can explain the probability of the receiving remittances or not, the probit regression was considered essential to the analysis. Also, it is important to first develop a further analysis of the variables that are used in the implementation of the model. There is a list of independent variables which we considered as the most feasible characteristics of the individuals in our sample.
The independent variables that were used for the probit regression, are presented in the table below. In parenthesis is given the value of standard deviation for each variable. It is, say, politically advantageous to oppose something with a low double-digit approval rating that you know leadership isn't going to make you vote on for now The newly declared "no" votes underscore something CNN reporters been hearing for a few days: So what's it all mean: The reality is the dynamics haven't changed.
McConnell knows quite well what each of his members wants to get to yes. He has money to give moderates in the near term. He can pitch regulatory changes to the conservatives. That wasn't enough this week. Now it's a question of how to get enough of them into a single bill, while not completely alienating the other side of the ideological spectrum, and somehow manage to get to 50 votes.
Return Medicaid growth rate as pegged to medical inflation More from Heller: Slower Medicaid expansion phase out; don't allow states to strip out essential health benefits; whatever else Republican Gov. Brian Sandoval of Nevada says he wants or needs Sens. Strip out plans to defund Planned Parenthood Paul: A final really important point: At the center of the Republican inability to reach a compromise here are significant, intra-party ideological differences on how to approach health care.
Bocconi University, established inis one of the leading European centers of business and economic education. The Wall Street Journal, has ranked the MBA program among the top 20 for graduate recruitment to multinational corporations. The Bocconi MBA program has also been recognized by Forbes as one of the best values in graduate business education. I would like to especially thank our local hosts, Professor Markus Venzin and Federica Foce Massa Saluzzo, who have worked extremely hard to make your time in Milan trouble-free and enjoyable.
We all owe a debt of gratitude to John Cantwell, who together with his track chairs has put together a stimulating program that explores how cross national networks both international to the MNC as well networks that cross company and country boundaries contribute to knowledge creation and innovation. Innovation has traditionally been at the heart of International Business research as early IB research focused on firm strategies to take domestic innovations to new markets.
Now that technologies have become increasingly complex, companies need to combine capabilities from different parts of the world and from different companies to commercialize a new product.
It is fitting that on the observance of the 50 th anniversary of the AIB, John asks us to think deeply about the benefits, the challenges, as well as the limitations of increasing globalization. I can think of no more fitting place to have these discussions than in Milan, a political, financial, economic, and cultural center of Europe. We have designed a program that I am sure you will find intellectually challenging, and professionally rewarding, centered on the theme of Knowledge Development and Exchange in International Business Networks.
The program is comprised of 4 plenary sessions, 36 panels, competitive paper sessions, and 43 interactive paper sessions a total of sessions over three days. This makes our meeting here the largest AIB conference ever by some considerable margin! The impressive size of the conference reflects the fact that we received a record number of submissions this year 1, in all, which was far in excess of the usual level, and significantly above the previous record of submissions set in Beijing two years ago.
As many of you know, this is also the 50 th Anniversary of the AIB and I m quite sure that the original founders of the AIB, all those 50 years ago, would have been very impressed to know that such a giant oak would grow from the tiny acorn that they were at that time.
As this program goes to press we already have around 1, registrations, and altogether over 1, people from 44 countries will make a contribution as authors, panelists, presenters, session chairs, faculty consortium organizers and track chairs. Those of you that have attended previous AIB conferences will find that we are introducing a number of innovations in this year s program. One of these is that poster sessions are being replaced by more formal Interactive Paper sessions.
These sessions should be intense, given the number of papers to be discussed in most cases, but we hope they will lead to a more substantial interaction between authors with related interests.
Another new feature is a set of Pedagogy sessions that have been coordinated by Roberto Garcia of Indiana University, and which should be a useful means of helping colleagues in their teaching of International Business. Last but by no means least, we will be holding a series of Receptions on the second evening, around specific AIB chapters and interest groups.
I believe that these receptions, together with the elimination of poster sessions during the lunch breaks, will help to generate a relaxed setting for more social exchanges at this year s annual meeting.
Milan has long been the business capital city of Italy, where Rome is the political capital. Milan is the home of the Italian stock exchange, a magnificent Duomo, and La Scala opera theater. It is extremely well connected with other world business centers, especially those located elsewhere in central and western Europe. As such, there could hardly be a more appropriate place to act as a host venue for this year s theme of Knowledge Development and Exchange in International Business Networks.
Our various tracks all pick up on different aspects of this issue, together with the full range of other concerns in our International Business field. Among the highlights of the program for the coming several days are as follows: Monday, June 30 th A full day of professional activities including: The Junior Faculty Consortium, chaired by Ram Mudambi Temple Universityis being structured to provide many opportunities for interaction between junior faculty and senior scholars on the faculty panel.
The formal program begins at 5: This will be followed by the Presidential Reception in Bocconi University. Please note that this year we will be holding our plenary sessions in the Aula Magna in Bocconi University, which has a maximum capacity of seats. Given the expected attendance at the conference this means that it is highly advisable to come early to any plenary session that you really want to attend seats will be allocated on a first come, first served basis. However, with the exception of the Opening 50 th Anniversary Plenary on the Monday evening, not all plenary sessions this year are intended to be truly plenary.
We will instead take advantage of this opportunity to run a number of Interactive Paper sessions concurrently with each remaining plenary session. So the first set of Interactive Paper sessions are also scheduled for 9: Competitive Paper sessions and Panels start at If the Opening Plenary session will have looked forward to the next 50 years on the occasion of our own 50 th Anniversary, this morning a panel arranged by John H Dunning will look back on The Past 50 Years of International Business Research.
A light lunch will be provided from 1: