Serbia | History, Geography, & People | dayline.info
It sounds impossible now, but we – Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia: . The year is after all and Bulgaria have amazing relations whit Greece and .. I'm also aware that Serbian songs and singers are quite popular among Bulgarians. Bulgarian-Serbian relations are foreign relations between Bulgaria and Serbia. They established diplomatic relations on 18 January as the Principality of. The Bulgarians in Serbia are a victim of the Bulgarian-Serbian relations, says Zdenka Todorova, chair of the Helsinki Committee for Protection.
In total, the Central Union of Municipalities and Communities of Greece had been responsible for hosting more than 2, Serbian children by that point. Greek Ambassador to Belgrade Panayiotis Vlassopoulos stated that hospitality for these children in Greece constituted only a portion of the humanitarian aid which Greek local governments and organizations have been providing for Yugoslavia since war erupted.
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He added that these initiatives contribute to the strengthening of Greek—Serbian relations. The children were accompanied by their teachers so that they'd be able to keep up with their studies. The mayor of Kavala, Stathis Efifillidis, was quoted as saying that, "All the residents of the city have shown their love for the children. InGreek families hosted Serbian orphans from 20 December to 6 January The hospitality program, like many others, was held with the cooperation of the Greek Red Cross and the Yugoslav Red Cross.
It was the second time that year that Serbian children were hosted. Since the Greek and Serbian Red Cross launched the hosting of children from Serbia inan estimated 16, children have stayed with Greek families. As a result, very close friendship ties have been forged and, in most cases, contact between the children and the host families continues.
When, in SeptemberPatriarch Pavle of the Serbian Orthodox Church visited Cyprus, he presented Archbishop Chrysostomos of the Church of Cyprus with an icon of the Virgin Mary as a token of appreciation for the help and support the Church of Cyprus and the people of Cyprus had shown to the people of Serbia.
Archbishop Chrysostomos praised the close relations between the Churches of Serbia and Cyprus, remarking that the presence of Patriarch Pavle was proof of the unity and brotherhood between the two Churches. Patriarch Pavle compared the situations that Greeks in Cyprus face to those that Serbs face, saying that both Cyprus and Serbia were struggling for their freedom.
He also reaffirmed Serbian support to the Greeks of Cyprus. In an address at Belgrade's Cathedral, Archbishop Christodoulos referred to the help which the Greeks had offered to the Serbs. At the ceremony Patriarch Pavle was quoted as saying that, "The Greek Church has always sympathised with the troubles we have been in, rendering us support as well as aid in medicines and food". During the first days of Holy Week, the Rev.
Most of the expected cost, estimated at over 30 million euros, will be provided by Greece. By Junethe government had already disbursedeuros for the first phase of the work. According to Assistant Minister of Interior Predrag Maric, over firemen signed up for Greece in less than an hour. The Ambassador of Greece said that that day showed once again the excellent cooperation between the two nations thanking everyone who had taken part in extinguishing fires.
He also remarked that in the last ten days, Serbian pilots and technicians showed great skill in extinguishing fires, which moved the whole of Greece and the Greek nation in particular. The charity was honored with the presence of famous basketball players who were glad to support this humanitarian event. Among many the event was attended by: Crown Prince Alexander II and Crown Princess Katherine continued their noble efforts on 29 Septemberwhen they visited the Messinia region and the municipality of Andania to deliver Serbian donations of clothes for children as well as baby equipment to the victims of the forest fires in Greece.
Bilateral relations[ edit ] Serbian-Greek relations have traditionally been friendly due to cultural and historical factors. Friendly relations have played an important role in bilateral relations between the two nations, especially during the wars of the s and the Balkans Campaign  in World War I. Following the dissolution of the state union of Serbia and MontenegroSerbia inherited the rights and obligations of the union and, as a result, the existing bilateral contractual framework with Greece.
Out of the many Greek-Serbian bilateral agreements, it is worth pointing out the agreements on mutual judicial relations, scientific and educational cooperation, tourism development, air transport, international road transportation of passengers and goods, and economic and technological cooperation.
There are regular high-level visits between the two countries, such as Foreign Minister Ms. There are also frequent contacts between the two countries ministries and agencies on various matters concerning individual sectors.
Greece is one of Serbia's main EU trade partners. Bilateral trade has increased significantly over the past few years. There are investments in all sectors, but mainly in the industrial and banking sectors.
It is worth noting the presence of Greek-Serbian companies, as well as purely Greek businesses that employ 25, jobs. Serbia also maintains honorary consulate and a memorial museum in Corfu. Police and military cooperation defense [ edit ] On 20 October, Interior ministers of Serbia and Greece, Ivica Dacic and Prokopis Pavlopoulos signed an agreement on police cooperation between their two countries in Athens that paves the way for intelligence sharing for all crime forms, illegal migration, narcotics trade and human trafficking.
Throughout history the autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church has viewed itself as the champion of Serbian national interests. During the Ottoman period it waged a long struggle against the influence of Greek clergy based in Constantinople.
Because of its nationalist activities, the Ottoman regime suppressed the Serbian church from to Religious affiliation Settlement patterns Urban settlement For many years a steady stream of migrants left marginal parts of Serbia to settle in Belgrade and other developed areas.
Nevertheless, truly urban settlements in Serbia are relatively few. Belgrade achieved a population in excess of one million by virtue of its role as capital both of Serbia and of Yugoslavia and its successor, Serbia and Montenegro. Other urban areas are market towns and centres of regional administration. Houses are mainly constructed of logs or roughly sawn planks, with roofs of shingles; plaster frequently covers outer walls. Houses are usually spaced close together.
In the plains of the Vojvodina, on the other hand, villages are large and widely spaced. They are much more recent than most highland settlements, since they appeared only during the 18th and 19th centuries, when Habsburg forces secured the Hungarian Plain.
Most commonly they exhibit a gridiron form, reflecting sites originally laid out by Austrian military engineers. Subotica town hall, Vojvodina, Serb. Although they are larger than other rural settlements, they lack the nonagricultural activities and amenities that would classify them as urban.
Their large size is derived from the early concern that farm colonists needed protection against raids from the Ottoman-controlled south; it also facilitated control of the workforce by landowners who had gained extensive farming territories.
Typically, houses in villages are elongated, with ends adjacent to the streets. Fences or walls, often with elaborate gates, join adjacent houses to mark courtyards and to afford privacy and protection.
As the threat of Ottoman border raids waned in the 19th and 20th centuries, individual farmsteads began to appear in open fields between large villages. Originally serving as shelters during harvest times, these salaj Hungarian: Such dispersed farmsteads now give parts of the Vojvodina an appearance similar to the American Midwest.
Demographic trends The rate of population increase differs markedly by region. Between the and censuses, the total population of Serbia grew 10 percent. However, within the country, the Vojvodina had a net growth of only about 5 percent, while Kosovo, then a province of Serbia, expanded by more than 25 percent.
Warfare in Kosovo dramatically altered population growth and settlement patterns in that region in the s, with large numbers of Albanian refugees entering the province from other parts of Serbia.
Today a life expectancy of about 70 years is characteristic of all parts of the country. Economy In Yugoslavia adopted a socialist economic system modeled on institutions in the Soviet Unionbut, following its break with the Communist Information Bureau Cominform ina system evolved that allowed increasing opportunity for individual enterprise.
Most farmers were gathered into collective farms until this unpopular policy was abandoned after In Serbia the institution continued mainly in former German estates in the Vojvodina, where the regime had resettled migrants from mountainous regions of Serbia and Montenegro. The communist regime also nationalized existing industrial enterprises and embarked on an ambitious policy of rapidly creating more.
Using funds derived from the profits of manufacturing plants in the long-developed industrial regions of Slovenia and Croatia, it created large numbers of new enterprises in Serbia and other former Ottoman parts of Yugoslavia.
Many manufacturing sites, however, were selected with an eye to providing job opportunities for political constituencies rather than for inherent advantages in the production process. This lag largely reflected the long association of the southern regions with the Ottoman Empire, whose ineffectual bureaucracy had done little to promote investment, technology transfer, and improvements to the infrastructure within its lands.
Within Serbia, only in the Habsburg-controlled Vojvodina did a commercialized economy emerge during the 19th century. Indeed, the inhabitants of Kosovo never achieved an annual per capita income greater than 15 percent of that of Slovenia during the entire period of greater Yugoslavia. After the break with the Soviet bloc inworker self-management in factories and institutions was adopted.
This program, which sought to address problems inherent in the highly centralized Soviet model of socialism, was codified in the Law on Associated Labour of This system of self-management included not only factories and retail establishments but also schools, health clinics, and other public service institutions.
Although self-management permitted a degree of flexibility in managerial decision makingworker involvement in the BOALs led to substantial costs in time and efficiency. Management councils in factories tended to favour short-term increases in wages at the expense of long-term capital investments in more productive equipment. Dissatisfaction with self-management, and also with the diversion of profits to less-developed regions, played a large role in the secession of Croatia and Slovenia, both of which embarked on a program of economic privatization and complete repudiation of the socialist system.
Socialist self-management remained in the reduced federation, but it faced daunting economic problems. Agriculture in Serbia has shifted notably from livestock to crop production and from commercial to subsistence provision.
Industry similarly has regressed from the high-technology production of consumer durables to the making of single-use commodities. Widespread criminality and corruption also have taken their toll. Not only did Serbia suffer from the loss of established markets and sources of raw materials in the other republics, but its labour forces exhibited markedly low discipline and productivity, which made it difficult to compete in world markets.
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Privatization of the economy began inbut by the early 21st century only about one-third of output was derived from private production, which was largely concentrated in agriculture, retail tradeand services. Although humanitarian aid has softened the blow, the economy has yet to fully recover. The principal area of commercial agriculture is the Vojvodina region and adjacent lowlands south of the Sava and Danube rivers, including the valley of the north-flowing Morava River.Bulgarians in Serbia
Three-fourths of sown crops in Serbia are grains. Corn maize predominates, occupying some one-third of the cropland, and wheat is next in importance. Other noteworthy crops are sugar beets, sunflowers, potatoes, oilseeds, hemp, and flax. Fruits and vegetables are also cultivated. Hillsides are used mainly for raising animals. Pigs particularly forage in woodland areas. Limited areas are sown with rye and oats. Orchards also are characteristic of upland areas—particularly plums, which form the basis for the production of slivovitz, a brandy that is the national drink.
Owing to demand from western Europe, raspberries have become an important crop. Farming tends to be on a subsistence basis in the Serbian uplands. Rural families produce a range of crops for their own consumption. Some areas also produce tobacco commercially. In most villages vegetables are grown in garden plots adjacent to houses.
Although woodlands in Serbia are plentiful, commercial forestry plays a relatively minor role. Resources and power Natural resources Serbia is endowed with substantial natural resources, but it is notably deficient in mineral fuels. Some coal has been developed in the northeast, and the possibility exists for the expansion of mining there. The little petroleum that has been discovered is located in the Vojvodina. Concentrations of copper ore are located in the Carpathian Mountains near the borders with Bulgaria and Romania.
Substantial amounts of iron ore also are present in this area. Mining and copper smelting developed in northeastern Serbia around Bor and Majdanpek. Lignite and bituminous coal are mined in the Kolubara River valley southwest of Belgrade and in parts of eastern Serbia. Energy Hydroelectric power and coal are the principal sources of energy in Serbia, which has no nuclear power stations.
A small thermoelectric plant using natural gas operates in the Vojvodina capital of Novi Sad. Manufacturing Manufacturing industries are concentrated in the north, particularly in the vicinity of Belgrade, which has the advantages of a long-established infrastructure, a developed labour forcethe largest single market in the republic, and the greatest concentration of existing enterprises to serve as both parts suppliers and consumers of products.
Among the principal products of this area are automobiles, trucks, tires, batteries, and radio and television equipment. Smederevo, east of Belgrade, has a major iron and steel facility, but it lacks ready access to quality coking coal.
Textile production is prominent in Novi Sad and other towns of the Vojvodina. In addition to numerous commercial and savings banks, there are many savings and loan institutions. Moreover, the Post Office Savings Bank plays a significant role in consumer savings. After the collapse of the Yugoslav federation inSerbia endured crippling hyperinflation and in the s issued several different currencies, which were subject to significant inflationary pressures.
Few Yugoslav companies were initially listed on the exchange, but with increasing privatization, it was anticipated that most enterprises would eventually be publicly traded. Other important commercial partners include RussiaSwitzerlandChina, and Hungary.
Owing to warfare and economic sanctions, exports dropped by about three-fourths in the s. Manufacturing exports were particularly hard hit by sanctions, though other economic sectors also suffered losses. Similarly, imports fell by about half. Unlike other parts of the former Yugoslav federation, Serbia received little foreign investment. The legacy of warfare and sanctions by the United States and the EU, together with problems of infrastructure decline, loss of human capitaland corruption, left the country generally unattractive to foreign investors.
More than 50 developed mineral springs have been another attraction, although these facilities traditionally have attracted domestic tourists.
However, both domestic and international tourism declined significantly with the unrest of the s. Labour and taxation Industrial employment accounts for about half of total employment in Serbia, while the service sector employs about one-third of the workforce. A substantial proportion of the population is either unemployed or underemployed. As in other socialist countries, a high proportion of Serbian women were employed outside the home.
As the economy declined during the s, women suffered disproportionately greater job losses as displaced men entered more stable employment areas that traditionally had been dominated by women.