Nervous System: Anatomy and Function — PT Direct
The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, sensory information from receptor sites are sent towards the CNS to the brain via the spinal cord. The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The Central nervous system is made up of the. These nerves conduct impulses from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
It is understood that genetics play a role in the construction and development of the human nervous system. As humans develop, there is an overproduction of neurons and apoptosis is a mechanism to systematically cause cell death to ensure an exact match of incoming axons to receiving cell Kalat, Thus, the early stages of construction and development are vital in the normal maturation of humans, as genetic mutations can cause defects and the distortion of chemicals can cause issues such as impairment and learning disabilities.
Therefore, as humans develop through adulthood, the nervous system can have profound impacts on their ability to see, hear, learn, and express emotion, among other things. From birth to 1 year, the weight of the human brain is increased from about grams to 1, grams, reaching roughly 1, grams as an adult. There are three main research designs within this field that assist in providing a deeper understanding of this topic and the controversies that have been debated for many of years.
This is the foundation of identifying the influence of the nervous system as genetically designed and environmentally modified. We want to understand which parts of the brain are most strongly determined by our genes.
Source The Environment The environment also plays a role, but it is still much harder to identify the environment's specific influences on personality variations, with the exception of early development issues including the affects of alcohol, drugs, and other substances consumed by the mother while pregnant. When someone experiences a severe trauma to their spinal cord, it will often result in paralysis of their body below the point of trauma. For example if the spinal cord is damaged above the nerves that stimulate their lower body legs etcthen they will not be able to walk again.
Anderson Logic: The relationship between CNS and PNS.
This is because the messages which are intended for the legs can no longer reach them. In essence it is like the power cable to your house being cut and the lights going out. The nervous system is not just responsible for stimulating muscle; it stimulates every tissue and organ within the body. It is therefore important that you understand the nervous system so that you can train clients safely and effectively. The nervous system and fitness The nervous system and fitness go hand in hand.
Completing an activity that you have done thousands of times like running, learning a new skill such as squatting or simply thinking about the activity you are about to do all utilise the nervous system. For example when a client learns a new exercise, such as the dumbbell bench press, you may find that the movement is quite awkward and difficult for them.
This is because their nervous system is trying to learn something new. However the more they repeat and refine the same movement the more efficient and smooth it becomes, until it is second nature.
When working with clients, a lot of the initial gains come from improvements in the nervous system as it learns new movement patterns and becomes more efficient at doing its job. It is also worth noting however, that if you give a client an exercise that is too advanced for them they may be deterred from exercising.
This is because the experience of not being able to do the exercise, feeling vulnerable while lifting weights or being excessively sore the next day may put them off. Ensuring your client is challenged sufficiently and appropriately to achieve their goals is fundamental when working in fitness.
To help you do this understanding the nervous system and your clients ability is important. This is because it will help you pick the correct types of exercise and intensities for clients, as well as know when to progress or regress an exercise. How is the nervous system organised? The nervous system has many divisions, each division has their own distinct purpose.
The diagram that follows represents the nervous system and its various divisions, followed by a explanation of each division. Their job is to integrate information coming back from the peripheral nervous system and to respond automatically or make decisions on actions that should be taken. Their job is to communicate information between the CNS and the rest of the body.
Sensory afferent division The sensory also known as afferent division of the nervous system contains nerves that come from the viscera internal organs and the somatic areas muscles, tendons, ligaments, ears, eyes and skin. Motor efferent division The motor also known as efferent division of the nervous system contains motor nerves.
Somatic nervous system The somatic division of the nervous system contains nerves which end in the skeletal muscles. These nerves conduct impulses which control the skeletal muscles in response to a directive that comes from the brain. Autonomic nervous system The autonomic division of the nervous system contains nerves which end in the viscera internal organs.
They are therefore called visceral motor nerves.
The Influence of the Nervous System on Human Behavior | Owlcation
These nerves conduct impulses which control the heart, lungs, smooth muscle in blood vessels, digestive tract and glands. Sympathetic division The sympathetic division of the nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic division The parasympathetic division of the nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system as well. The following diagram highlights how the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions have different effects on various organs.
Central Nervous System — what does the brain and spinal cord do? The brain The brain is organised into areas responsible for processing information, making decisions and then carrying out the appropriate task. These actions include intended movement, behavior, and certain aspects of cognition.
Regions of the basal ganglia responsible for movement ensure that intended actions are carried out and irrelevant movements are inhibited. The cerebral cortex contains parts of, and interacts with, elements of the limbic system.
Significant structures of the limbic system include the cingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cingulate gyrus coordinates smells and sights with pleasant memories of previous emotions and participates in the emotional reaction to pain and the regulation of aggressive behavior.
The hippocampus is involved in learning memory, i. The amygdala connects with the hippocampus, the septal area, and the thalamus and mediates such feelings as friendship, affection, and expression of mood. Various nuclei of the thalamus link sensory pathways from the periphery to the cortex and structures of the limbic system and is associated with changes in emotional activity.
The hypothalamus controls mood e. The cerebellum receives information related to spatial positioning; and sends signals to the motor areas of the cortex via the thalamus and down the spinal cord to regulate proprioception. The cerebellum coordinates skeletal muscle activity in space and time; maintains balance; controls eye movement; and influences motor learning e. The brainstem medulla, pons and midbrain connects the spinal cord to the thalamus and the cortex.
The medulla and pons contain control centers that direct the autonomic nuclei that regulate heart rate, respiration, digestive functions, and reflex reactions e.
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- Difference Between CNS and PNS
In the midbrain, neurons in the periaqeaductal gray send descending projections to the spinal cord and modulate pain perception.
The spinal cord is organized into white and gray matter. White matter consists of fiber tracts that connect the periphery and spinal cord to more rostral areas of the CNS.