Specific Gravity And Viscosity Of Liquids
molecular interactions between water and ethylene glycol The experimental values of density, viscosity, and refrac- calculated according to the equation. Densities and viscosities of the binary mixtures of acetic acid with ethylene were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. Keywords: Acetic acid, Density, Diethylene glycol, Ethylene glycol, Modeling, Viscosity. Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2. It is mainly used for two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and for antifreeze formulations. It is an odorless, colorless, sweet-tasting, viscous liquid. Odor, Odorless. Density, g/cm3.
Calculate density and viscosity of glycerol/water mixtures
Now it ceases to behave like a solid and starts to act like a thick liquid. You don't have to worry about it flowing off the brush as you raise it to your mouth. Shear-thinning fluids can be classified into one of three general groups.
A material that has a viscosity that decreases under shear stress but stays constant over time is said to be pseudoplastic. A material that has a viscosity that decreases under shear stress and then continues to decrease with time is said to be thixotropic.
If the transition from high viscosity nearly semisolid to low viscosity essentially liquid takes place only after the shear stress exceeds some minimum value, the material is said to be a bingham plastic.
Materials that thicken when worked or agitated are called shear-thickening fluids. An example that is often shown in science classrooms is a paste made of cornstarch and water mixed in the correct proportions. The resulting bizarre goo behaves like a liquid when squeezed slowly and an elastic solid when squeezed rapidly.
Ambitious science demonstrators have filled tanks with the stuff and then run across it. As long as they move quickly the surface acts like a block of solid rubber, but the instant they stop moving the paste behaves like a liquid and the demonstrator winds up taking a cornstarch bath.
The shear-thickening behavior makes it a difficult bath to get out of. The harder you work to get out, the harder the material pulls you back in.
The only way to escape it is to move slowly. Materials that turn nearly solid under stress are more than just a curiosity. They're ideal candidates for body armor and protective sports padding. A bulletproof vest or a kneepad made of of shear-thickening material would be supple and yielding to the mild stresses of ordinary body motions, but would turn rock hard in response to the traumatic stress imposed by a weapon or a fall to the ground.
Shear-thickening fluids are are also divided into two groups: If the increase in viscosity increases over time, the material is said to be rheopectic. If the increase is roughly directly proportional to the shear stress and does not change over time, the material is said to be dilatant.
Specific Gravity And Viscosity Of Liquids
Such properties of liquid mixtures are useful in designing various transport and process equipments in the chemical industry [ 4 ]. An amphiphilic molecule possesses at the same time a polar and nonpolar group. In aqueous solutions, these molecules can self-associate into aggregates called micelles [ 5 ], where contact between water and hydrocarbon is greatly reduced while the polar groups maintain their hydration.
In this process the main contributions to the free energy are the elimination of unfavorable hydrocarbon-water contacts, the head-group interactions, and the interaggregate interactions [ 67 ]. Hydration properties of solutes, that is, organic molecules and biomolecules in water mixtures, in general, reflect in a complex manner the combined effect of different heterogeneous interactions around the solute. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration and interaction are the central topics in liquid state chemistry and physics.
The interface of hydrophilic and hydrophobic effects with each other leads to destructive or, under certain conditions, the cooperative interaction [ 8 ].The dynamic viscosity of ethylene glycol.
Ethylene glycols are very interesting solvents owing to the presence of the oxy and hydroxyl groups in the same molecule. Due to this the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the —O— and —OH groups of the same or different molecules of ethylene glycols has been observed [ 9 ].
- DOW Ethylene Glycols
- Ethylene glycol
- International Scholarly Research Notices
Despite their interesting characteristics and industrial importance, thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing ethylene glycols have not been studied extensively enough [ 10 ]. In the present work, we report the density of binary mixtures containing ethylene glycol EGdiethylene glycol DEGand triethylene glycol TEG with water at temperatures ranging between Values of densities are correlated with temperature and molality.
The experimental data have been used to calculate the partial molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients. Chemicals All the solvents used were of analytical grade and purchased from Fluka AG. Densities and refractive indices of the pure liquids were measured and the results are listed in Table 1 together with the literature data for comparison.
These liquids were kept over freshly activated molecular sieves of type 4.
A Union Carbide for several days before use to reduce the water content. Table 1 reported some chemical and physical properties of all chemicals used in this study.
Physical properties of pure component liquids at Preparation of Solutions All solutions were prepared by dissolving the appropriate amount by mass of each solute in deionized distilled water.
Solutions of different molalities ranging from 0.
All solutions were left at least 24 hrs before measurements to attain equilibrium.