The Symbiotic Relationship of the Goby Fish and Shrimp by aleanna collins on Prezi
Symbiotic Relationships: Pistol Shrimp & Gobies: A Safe Alliance This behavior is primarily a defense mechanism against predatory fish. Pistol shrimp are also. Gobies belong to one of the most speciose fish families consisting of around The goby-shrimp relationship is an example of what is called an. Symbiosis in Goby Fish and Alpheus Shrimp. Throughout the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans, species of Gobiid fish are known to form a symbiotic pair.
I also kept the young gobies separated. By changing the partners in one tank, I could easily find out if two specimens would go together, which is the indication for different sexes.
The blind shrimp and the macaroni goby
In the next step, I brought both couples together in the observation tank. I kept the interior of the tank simple: The shrimp started building the burrow immediately after I introduced them in a little cup and directed them into a gap I made under a piece of live rock.
Then the fish were added. It did not take longer than an hour, and the double couple was together.
During the next days, the burrow grew. The shrimp transported all excavated material and pushed it outside the burrow. They used their claws to push the sand like a little bulldozer. This astonishing skill can only be performed if the goby is out to guard their safety. When the tunnel system grew, the partner behaved differently under subterranean conditions.
The narrow space in the burrow causes them to squeeze their partners against the burrow wall. The fish tend to wiggle through the burrows with force and no hesitation toward their crustacean partners. Due to the action, parts of the burrow system would often collapse. A fish buried under sand stays there without panic the shrimp can smell it and waits until the shrimp digs it out and begins to repair the burrow.
The main way into the burrow can be up to 2 feet long during the first days of excavation. Soon after, side ways are constructed, which can be as short as 2 inches. They can be driven forward and later form an exit to the surface, or they are extended to form a subterranean chamber. Repeatedly, I could observe the shrimp molting in these chambers.
This happens during the night every two to four weeks. The next morning, I would find exuviae close to them, and the female was carrying eggs on her abdominal legs if the shrimp are in good condition, molting and egglaying coincide. The shrimp cut the exuviae into pieces and transported them out of the burrow as soon as their new test hardened.
Hatching of the zoea larvae seems to happen overnight, which makes sense to avoid predators as long as possible. The currents caused by the beating of the pleopods must pump the eggs out of the burrows, where they become a part of the plankton.
The shrimp are omnivorous and collect large pieces of frozen fish positioned close to the entrance of the burrow. They collect the food and transport it immediately into the burrow, where they feed on it.
However, outside they can also be observed eating algae growing on rocks. The shrimp directly gnaw with their mouth pieces on rock where algae is growing. Even more fascinating was that I found parts of the algae Caulerpa racemosa inside the burrow system, though it grew more in another edge of the tank. It took some time until I could observe that the shrimp cut these algae with their claws if they get access to it.
However, that can only happen when fish and shrimp are on a coexcursion outside the burrow. In one instance, after cutting, the shrimp lost the algae due to the currents in the tank. But the unexpected happened: The goby immediately took action and grabbed the Caulerpa with its mouth.The Odd Couple: Goby Fish & Pistol Shrimp (HD)
That moment, the shrimp lost antenna contact with the fish and quickly rushed backward to the entrance. The goby transported the lost food to the entrance and spit it out into the entrance of the burrow where the shrimp was waiting. The fish was actively feeding the shrimp! I tested this observation and pulled algae off the rocks.
- The Symbiotic Relationship Between Gobies And Pistol Shrimp
When the fish was in the entrance of the burrow, I threw a 1. The goby directly approached it while it was still floating in the water column, collected it and brought it to the burrow.
That collecting behavior could be induced up to five times repeatedly. The shrimp handled the algae inside the burrow in the meantime. I could never observe that the shrimp were keeping algae in certain parts of the burrow.
There was not a special storage chamber for algae pieces. Instead the algae pieces were pushed around, and the shrimp fed on them here and there. After some days, the algae disappeared completely. Breeding in the Burrow While the reproduction of the shrimp is not spectacular, that of the gobies bears some peculiar aspects. Close to mating, the male and female gobies start a wild circular dance in an extended side corridor of the burrow.
They stimulate each other head to tail, which causes sand and gravel to fall from the ceiling. The gobies can successfully mate only when the shrimp are healthy and have hard tests. The female does not go back to the breeding chamber—the male fish is the only one to care for the eggs.
Usually, he moves the approximately 2, eggs which can easily be done, as the eggs are attached to each other and form a bundle by moving his pectoral fins backward and forward. He swims around the eggs once in a while, which supplies oxygen to the eggs. Oxygen is low in chambers deep in the sand; only intensive care will keep them oxygenated. The male goby protects the eggs against a potential predator in the burrow: In fact, the shrimp couple never gets access to the fish eggs.
The male goby is busy guarding the eggs during this period and rarely leaves the burrow. If he does leave, he closes the breeding chamber with sand.
The Symbiotic Relationship Between Gobies And Pistol Shrimp
He pushes sand into the entrance of it with his head or tail. When he comes back, he just wiggles through the pile of sand to come back to the eggs. After seven to 10 days depending on temperature or perhaps oxygen supply the larvae are ready to hatch.
Hatching always happened at night with my fish, and by morning the larvae had all left the burrow, probably guided by the light. Giving and taking is incredibly developed in this symbiosis and likely evolved under the influences of the harsh environment with limited access to shelter and food.
Reproductive success depends on the activity of the partners. To protect their offspring, the gobies keep the shrimp away. The blind shrimp and the… Gobies belong to one of the most speciose fish families consisting of around members. Most of the gobies are rather small and have very little direct defence against predators.
Thus, most gobies in reef areas live in close association with animals such as wire corals, branching corals and sea pens that the gobies can hide in, around or between. Some gobies have in an amazing evolutionary process acquired the help of a group of shrimps in order to create shelter in the barren open areas. The shrimps belong to the pistol shrimps of the genus Alpheus, shrimps that often dig burrows.
The gobies, in contrast, have excellent vision, and, furthermore, have their pelvic fins extended as a pedestal. In the relationship between the shrimp and the goby, the Alpheus shrimp digs a burrow, which is used as shelter by both the shrimp and the goby. In turn, the goby spends its day outside the opening of the tunnel, resting on its extended pelvis fins, and keeping carefully watch over the immediate area, alerting the shrimp when danger comes to close, resulting in the shrimps retreat into the burrow.
Goby with partner shrimp The goby-shrimp relationship is an example of what is called an obligate mutualism. These gobies are never found without their shrimp partners, and, conversely, the partner shrimp are never found without their goby partners. As far as I know, coral reef areas and their immediate surroundings offer by far the most examples of such interspecies symbiotic relationships essential for both species survival.
The real cool thing about the shrimp-goby symbiosis is that the shrimp and the goby go one step further in their coevolution than most other species pairs. The goby is capable of communicating levels of danger to the shrimp.