Foreign relations of Ireland - Wikipedia
Lord Birkenhead, one of the British signatories of the Irish treaty and later secretary of state for India, considered it 'frankly inconceivable that India will ever . and look at three different examples of home rule in Ireland, the United States, and India. degree in History, and a master's degree in International Relations. Indo-Irish relations are the bilateral ties between India and Ireland. As former possessions of the British Empire, the two countries had a similar . And Ireland India Council also seeks to foster business ties between the two states. The Council.
Grady told the State Department in December that he had informed Nehru "that this is a question that cannot be straddled and that India should get on the democratic side immediately. His tour of the US was "an undiplomatic disaster" that left bad feelings on both sides. India tried to act as a broker to help end that war, and served as a conduit for diplomatic messages between the US and China.
Meanwhile, poor harvests forced India to ask for American aid for its food security, which was given starting in The Soviet Union provided about half as much in monetary terms, however made much larger contributions in kind, taking the form of infrastructural aid, soft loans, technical knowledge transfer, economic planning and skills involved in the areas of steel millsmachine buildinghydro-electric power and other heavy industries especially nuclear energy and space research.
Eisenhower at Parliament House, before the President's address to a joint session of Parliament, InDwight D. Eisenhower was the first US President to visit India to strengthen the staggering ties between the two nations. He was so supportive that the New York Times remarked, "It did not seem to matter much whether Nehru had actually requested or been given a guarantee that the US would help India to meet further Chinese Communist aggression.
What mattered was the obvious strengthening of Indian—American friendship to a point where no such guarantee was necessary. Kennedy, Vice-President Lyndon B.
Foreign relations of the United States - Wikipedia
Kennedy 's Presidency —63India was considered a strategic partner and counterweight to the rise of Communist China. Kennedy said, Chinese Communists have been moving ahead the last 10 years.
India has been making some progress, but if India does not succeed with her million people, if she can't make freedom work, then people around the world are going to determine, particularly in the underdeveloped world, that the only way they can develop their resources is through the Communist system.
The Kennedy administration openly supported India during the Sino-Indian war and considered the Chinese action as "blatant Chinese Communist aggression against India". Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and General Maxwell Taylor advised the president to use nuclear weapons should the Americans intervene in such a situation.
Kennedy insisted that Washington defend India as it would any ally, saying, "We should defend India, and therefore we will defend India. As an economist, he also presided over the at the time largest US foreign aid program to any country.
- Foreign relations of the United States
- Ireland–United States relations
- India–Ireland relations
Following the assassination of Kennedy inIndo-US relations deteriorated gradually. While Kennedy's successor Lyndon Johnson sought to maintain relations with India to counter Communist China,  he also sought to strengthen ties with Pakistan with the hopes of easing tensions with China and weakening India's growing military buildup as well. Richard Nixon shifted away from the neutral stance which his predecessors had taken towards Indo-Pakistani hostilities.
India–United States relations - Wikipedia
He established a very close relationship with Pakistan, aiding it militarily and economically, as India, now under the leadership of Indira Gandhiwas seen as leaning towards the Soviet Union. He considered Pakistan as a very important ally to counter Soviet influence in the Indian subcontinent and establish ties with China, with whom Pakistan was very close.
Later inIndia conducted its first nuclear test, Smiling Buddhawhich was opposed by the US, however it also concluded that the test did not violate any agreement and proceeded with a June shipment of enriched uranium for the Tarapur reactor.
In the late s, with the anti-Soviet Janata Party leader Morarji Desai becoming the Prime Minister, India improved its relations with the US, now led by Jimmy Carterdespite the latter signing an order in barring nuclear material from being exported to India due to India's non-proliferation record. The Reagan Administration provided limited assistance to India.
India sounded out Washington on the purchase of a range of US defence technology, including F-5 aircraft, super computers, night vision goggles and radars. In Washington approved the supply of selected technology to India including gas turbines for naval frigates and engines for prototypes for India's light combat aircraft. There were also unpublicised transfers of technology, including the engagement of a US company, Continental Electronics, to design and build a new VLF communications station at Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu, which was commissioned in the late s.
The United States strongly condemned this testing, promised sanctions, and voted in favour of a United Nations Security Council Resolution condemning the tests. President Bill Clinton imposed economic sanctions on India, including cutting off all military and economic aid, freezing loans by American banks to state-owned Indian companies, prohibiting loans to the Indian government for all except food purchases, prohibiting American aerospace technology and uranium exports to India, and requiring the US to oppose all loan requests by India to international lending agencies.
Only Japan joined the US in imposing direct sanctions, while most other nations continued to trade with India. During the Troublesthe disagreement led to request for extradition of terrorist suspects to be struck invalid by the Supreme Court of Ireland unless the name Ireland was used. Increasingly positive relations between the two states required the two states to explore imaginative work-arounds to the disagreement.
For example, while the United Kingdom would not agree to refer to Mary Robinson as President of Ireland on an official visit to Queen Elizabeth II the first such visit in the two states' historythey agreed to refer to her instead as "President Robinson of Ireland". The King had a number of symbolically important duties, including exercising the executive authority of the state, appointing the cabinet and promulgating the law.
In the chaos that ensued his abdication, the Irish Free State took the opportunity to amend its constitution and remove all of the functions of the King except one: Ina new constitution was adopted which entrenched the monarch's diminished role by transferring many of the functions performed by the King until to a new office of the President of Irelandwho was declared to "take precedence over all other persons in the State".
However, the constitution did not explicitly declare that the state was a republic, nor that the President was head of state. Without explicit mention, the King continued to retain his role in external relations and the Irish Free State continued to be regarded as a member of the British Commonwealth and to be associated with the United Kingdom.
The exact constitutional status of the state during this period has been a matter of scholarly and political dispute.
India–United States relations
The state's ambiguous status ended inwhen the Republic of Ireland Act stripped the King of his role in external relations and declared that the state may be described as the Republic of Ireland. The decision to do so was sudden and unilateral. However, it did not result in greatly strained relations between Ireland and the United Kingdom.
The question of the head of the Irish state from to was largely a matter of symbolism and had little practical significance. The UK response was to legislate that it would not grant Northern Ireland to the Irish state without the consent of the Parliament of Northern Ireland which was unlikely to happen in unionist -majority Northern Ireland. One practical implication of explicitly declaring the state to be a republic in was that it automatically terminated the state's membership of the British Commonwealthin accordance with the rules in operation at the time.
However, despite this, the United Kingdom legislated that Irish citizens would retain similar rights to Commonwealth subjects and were not to be regarded as foreigners. Immigration[ edit ] The Scots-Irish were some of the first settlers in the 13 colonies and played an important role in The War of Independence, as well as being some of the first cattle drivers in North America. The Irish exerted their own influence inside the United States, particularly through Democratic Party politics.
The famine hurt Irish men and women alike, especially those poorest or without land. Consequently, many Irish citizens were less bound to family obligations and could more easily migrate to the United States in the following decade. His American citizenship spared him from execution for his role in the Easter Rising.
The mission had three objectives: His visit lasted from June to December and had mixed success. One negative outcome was the splitting of the Irish-American organisations into pro- and anti-de Valera factions. Cohalanwho resented the dominant position he established, preferring to retain their control over Irish affairs in the United States. Naval Air Stations in Ireland from These stations were specifically in place to protect Ireland and neighboring countries from belligerent submarine aggression.
Post-Irish independence[ edit ] U.