Students in China (n = ), Korea (n = ), and Japan (n = ) completed surveys . In this study, the relationship between teacher confirmation and student Participants were located through previously established social networks at. (f) How do South Korean teachers' reported use and perceptions compare on the topic to a blog or social networking site as a means of engaging in a arts teachers, who bear the most responsibility for developing students' literacy. the relationship among teachers' perceptions about the importance of. The students' motivation in the classroom is like a rollercoaster. I have seen many classes where teachers stand at the board to explain the topic, then This is the best time to build a good relationship with your students. You are employed to teach, not to change society, so don't be disappointed if you.
Before you decide to friend or follow your students on social media, consider these pros and cons based on the grades you teach and the institutions for which you work. Elementary School Most social media sites expect users to be at least 18 years of age. However, younger students often still have pages. In some cases, connecting with younger students on social media may seem safer.
There are risks with these relationships as well. Depending on your level of involvement with each student, there may be questions about favoritism. Additionally, not all parents may allow their children on social media. This can create a point of contention between students and parents. If an online relationship is established, it is important to keep these things in mind. And, when in doubt, it may be more appropriate to communicate in other ways.
At a minimum, it would be wise to communicate with parents if you are open to connecting via social media.
That way they are fully aware that the connection is being made, and they can choose to deny the request if they prefer. Based on the literature, the current study define PAEs as including interest, hope, enjoyment, pride, calmness, contentment, and relief; and NAEs as including shame, anxiety, anger, worry, boredom, depression, fatigue, and hopelessness.
The relationship between teacher support and students' academic emotions Many empirical studies have shown that students with more teacher support have higher PAEs or lower NAEs. Specifically, students with more teacher support have more enjoyment, interest, hope, pride, or relief PAEs ; or less anxiety, depression, shame, anger, worry, boredom, or hopelessness NAEs Ahmed et al.
As the effect sizes differ substantially among these studies Skinner et al. However, these studies only partly verified the underlying phenomena, as some studies had limitations such as convenience sampling or ignoring sample size —resulting in low reliability and reducing the quality of the research.
Therefore, to determine clearly the link between teacher support and students' academic emotions, a meta-analysis is needed. Through a review of past empirical research on teacher support and students' academic emotions, we found that many effect sizes were heterogeneous, suggesting that moderators might account for these differences. Specifically, we examined the potential moderating roles of students' cultures, ages, and genders. Potential moderators of the link between teacher support and students' academic emotions Culture Several studies have implied that culture may influence the association between teacher support and students' academic emotions.
For example, Karagiannidis et al. In contrast, King et al. Age The link between teacher support and students' academic emotions might differ by the latter's Klem and Connell, ; Frenzel et al. For example, past studies found that the relation between teacher support and indicators of PAE was lowest among middle school students and highest among university students, relative to elementary and high school students Aldridge et al. Meanwhile the link between teacher support and indicators of NAE was strongest for middle school students Taylor, ; Huang et al.
According to these findings, we expect age to moderate the relation between teacher support and students' academic emotions. Gender Female students tend to receive more teacher support than do male students Lutz, ; Baumeister and Sommer,and several empirical studies have shown gender differences in the link between teacher support and indicators of students' academic emotions, such as interest, depression, anxiety Van Ryzin et al.
According to these findings, we expect gender to moderate the correlation between teacher support and students' academic emotions. Study purpose This meta-analysis of 65 studies analyzed the relations between teacher support and students' academic emotions positive and negative and their moderators.
Specifically, this study examined: We obtained full-text versions of articles from libraries when they could not be found online, limiting ourselves to articles written in English. On the Ning, students had a much larger audience for their work than usual.
The following screen clip shows the number of peer replies to students when working on a teacher-directed activity. In this activity, students were asked to produce a multimedia product of their choice that other students would find helpful and informative. Peers were then asked to give constructive feedback to one another with the aim of improving their final product. Online discussions and interactions were an important feature in providing students with constructive feedback for improvement prior to peer- and self-assessment.
Peer feedback also improved gradually and became an important resource for both the students and the researcher. The following three screen clips show different aspects of this process: The researcher asked students to be constructive, to say something positive before giving critical feedback, and, where possible, to finish with a positive comment.
This helped the students to build an understanding and acceptance of the opinions of others. When designing projects, the researcher needed to take into account the dynamics and connections the students would have in their Ning social network.
Many projects allowed students to use multimedia, and they generally enjoyed and appreciated this type of interactive medium, along with interactive Web 2. The researcher continued to remind them that the process of giving feedback to others required sensitivity and the need to be constructive while being understanding and positive. When looking closely at peer feedback, one can connect it to complexity theory: Complexity theory is an emerging field in which scientists seek patterns and relationships within systems.
Rather than looking to cause and effect relations, complexity theorists seek to explicate how systems function to rely upon feedback loops reiteration, recursion, reciprocity so as to re frame themselves and thus continue to develop, progress, and emerge.
She describes how certain patterns of behavior seem to be fixed, with some that are periodic and others that are chaotic. According to Smitherman, these fractal-like patterns display dynamic relations that occur in a class among teachers, students, subject material, and the classroom environment.
Most of the Ning groups, both teacher- and student-directed, produced this fractal-like pattern of dynamic relations. One interesting example of this is shown in the following screen clip where a student formed a group in a fit of frustration.
She was not listening in class, and when other students were ready to start work on a project she did not know what to do, so she asked the researcher.
The researcher replied in a negative manner, knowing the student had not listened to the initial instructions.
The Relationship between Teacher Support and Students' Academic Emotions: A Meta-Analysis
When signed into the Ning, students often worked in different ways than they did when in the traditional classroom. One example of this was when students worked on projects that involved a number of different classes. The researcher established these projects to promote cross-curriculum work, and students usually found them interesting. These project work online groups gave no reference to specific classes, so most students did not know which group was related to a particular class.
It was interesting to watch Year 7 students confidently connect with those in Year 10 as equals, taking on a profile of their choice.
The MashUp and Data Visualisation screen clips in Figure 10 show two shared groups that were used by the researcher to encourage students to explore interesting concepts and work across classes. Enabling students to work online allowed them to access the classroom anytime they wished. At parent—teacher interviews, parents were appreciative of the availability of online help resources and support for their children.
They also acknowledged that the availability of classroom work details was useful. Having them always visible online saved the researcher time because she did not need to repeat explanations as frequently.
Even so, the researcher believes that making good use of new technologies increases demands on teachers, as argued by Bertramp. Through the course of this action research study, the researcher found that there was an increase in the time needed to monitor and participate in the social network. It also took extra time to ensure that class projects, interesting Web sites, and resources were published online and available for students to access as needed. However, the researcher found that she successfully reduced her time spent on correction by implementing peer- and self-assessment with students and by using her classroom observations.
This led to an effective triangulation of assessment data. Chaos and complexity theories easily lend metaphorical analogies for education. There are connections within each student, but these are difficult and sometimes virtually impossible to ascertain. These patterns allow students not to suspend part of who they are in order to participate but rather encourage the development of oneself, and thus produce even richer and more meaningful interactions.
We look forward to finding new and novel ways to examine the data from this study through the different perspectives of theorists.
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As educators interested in innovative approaches to teaching, the idea of designing learning activities that take account of emergence and connections is encouraging. This is especially the case when teaching young people who are experienced social beings, both online and face-to-face. Imagine the impact on classroom teaching, tutoring, and educational research if it were recognized that linearity has often been falsely assumed in teaching and learning Kahn,p.
It was clear in this study that participants were able to take control of many aspects of learning, including supporting and assessing their peers. Their online connections served a purpose, diversifying their networks and uncovering new possibilities for learning. One can imagine both teachers and students learning together online, with the students acting as facilitators.
It was clear in this study and that of Mackey and Evans that participants took control of their online learning experiences; perhaps the problem is that, too often, educators do not offer to hand over this control. That is why the words of Doll, who encourages the future of active and emergent learning, are crucial: In this way, child and curriculum, learner and teacher, self and text, person and culture, dance together to form a complex pattern—ever changing, ever stable, ever alive.
Teachers cannot take this approach in fear of chaos and disorder; they must find innovative ways to construct disorder and flow with chaos and build resilience to the traditional training that instinctively drives them to take control. For the authors, with different, but related, interests in chaos and complexity theories, there are creative possibilities.
With this in mind, one must also consider the words of Klaus It is an established fact that the vast majority of systems or processes in the real world are so complicated that there is no hope and even no sense in trying to analyze them in full detail. The method of analysis for social sciences and in the humanities involves observation and thought along with creating notions and their operational interactions.
The very process of modelling even a small part of reality is naturally accompanied by a loss of information, in the sense that some aspects are deliberately eliminated from further considerations.
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A cross-cultural analysis of teacher confirmation and student motivation in China, Korea, and Japan
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