In addition to addressing leadership and motivation as theories rather than as scientific fact, persistent effort is applied in relation to the goals being pursued. Hence, leadership and motivation are so much interrelated that they cannot be When such employee relation is achieved, then the work of a leader will be. MOTIVATION OF MANAGERS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Thus, it is encourage understanding the relationship between leadership and business.
Sampling strategy and data collection Since this study was a baseline of a larger ongoing longitudinal evaluation study, sample size was determined using sample size calculation for clustered-randomization trials. In total, the sample size for this study was health facilities.
A random sample of 90 health facilities proportional to the number and type of health facility were picked from each region.Boss VS Leader - Motivational video
Using convenience sampling, we picked three health workers who were on duty that day ensuring that two of the three health health workers were picked from the maternity and out-patient department. Data collection was carried out between November and December by the lead author and 12 research assistants for each region. Of the health facilities, only facilities were reached due to the logistical challenges and long distances.
A total of questionnaires were returned and 59 questionnaires were dropped due to missing data.
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Data from out of facilities were available for analysis; thus the overall facility response rate was A total of Table 1 Health facility demographics Measures Leadership styles To measure leadership styles we adapted the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 23 to which the health workers responded.
The questionnaire measure dimensions of all the leadership styles; transformational, transactional and laissez faire. This tool can be obtained from Mindgarden. This tool required respondents to indicate social and psychological characteristics of their jobs using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 4. This tool has been attached in Figure S1.
Job satisfaction In this study, health worker job satisfaction was captured using a job satisfaction questionnaire that was adapted from 2 job satisfaction questionnaires. This tool has been attached in Figure S2.
Leadership and Motivation
Teamwork Teamwork was measured as level of team climate, that is, shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices, and procedures. The original version Team Climate Inventory was a item, 4-scale tool 27 but for this study, we adapted a short form item tool 28 to measure teamwork among health workers. This instrument was composed of 14 items and 4 dimensions, that is, vision, participation safety, information sharing, and support for innovation.
Health workers who participated were asked to indicate social and psychological characteristics of their jobs using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from Not at all 1 to Frequently or Always 4.
This tool has been attached in Figure S3. The tools were all first pretested among health facilities in Central region, Wakiso district, during which we focused on the comprehensibility and relevance of the questions for all health workers and to localize some demographic and work-related questions to the Ugandan context.
We later conducted a pilot test prior to data collection with the research assistants to ensure consistency of the interview techniques. It was expected that item scores would correlate higher with own hypothesized sub-category scales than other sub-category scales. For example, for using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, sub-categories II, IS, IC, IM would correlate higher with transformational leadership style while Cr, MEa would correlate higher with transactional leadership style and MEp, Lf would correlate higher with laissez-faire leadership style.
The similar method was applied on motivation and team-climate questionnaires based on their sub-categories. Correlation values of 0.
Dataset was transferred to Stata software version All variables with 4-point Likert scales were collapsed into dichotomous variables to simplify analysis of the highly skewed responses on the 4-point Likert scale, and for better visualization of the results.
We reversed responses to negative items so that higher scores indicate disagreement to these statements. We conducted 2 separate factor analyses to identify and confirm latent variables reported by the different questionnaires used.
Exploratory factor analysis was done to identify latent variables reported by job satisfaction questionnaire and confirmatory factor analysis was done to confirm the latent factors reported. Five latent factors were identified from the job satisfaction questionnaire, while 11 latent factors of Mulitifactor Leadership Questionnaire, 4 of Team Climate Inventory, as well as 5 of the motivation questionnaire were confirmed. Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were computed for all variables along with inferential statistics methods to include simple correlation to evaluate the correlations between leadership styles and job-related attributes motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork and multiple logistic regression to assess the relationships between components of each leadership style as independent variables and job-related attributes as dependent ones.
Following an explanation of the study, health workers who agreed to participate in the study completed the survey questionnaires anonymously and returned them to the research assistant at the end of the day. Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of sampled health facilities Abbreviation: Though laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated with motivation, job satisfaction, and team work, this was not statistically significant.
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Table 3 Correlations between leadership styles and worker-related behaviors among health workers in Uganda Notes: Table 4 Logistic regression of components of each leadership style with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork Notes: Discussion Much as extensive research has been made on the relationship between leadership styles and job-related behaviors in health care, 31 — 33 there is limited research on exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings like Uganda.
Results from this study indicate that health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational compared with being transactional or laissez-faire. Staff motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork were positively correlated with transformational leadership whereas only staff job satisfaction and teamwork were positively correlated with transactional leadership. Motivated staff was positively associated with leaders who exhibited II behavior and attributed but negatively associated with those who exhibited management by exception.
Job satisfaction was positively associated with only IS. Teamwork was positively associated with II behavior and attributed and Cr. The study was able to conclude that the more transformational the health facility manager was, the more motivated, satisfied, and team-spirited the health worker subordinates will be compared with those whose health facility managers were transactional or laissez-faire.
This finding was consistent with a study in Jimma University Hospital, which found that staff nurses preferred leaders with transformational rather than transactional styles. Being a role model is also a key motivator that influences people in reaching their goals. A leader should set a good example to ensure his people to grow and achieve their goals effectively.
Encouraging individuals to get involved in planning and important issues resolution procedure not only motivates them, but also teaches the intricacies of these key decision-making factors. Moreover, it will help everyone to get better understanding of their role in the organization.
The communication will be unambiguous and will certainly attract acknowledgement and appreciation from the leader.
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Developing moral and team spirit certainly has a key impact on the well-being of an organization. The metal or emotional state of a person constitutes his or her moral fabric. Hence, he should always be aware of his decisions and activities. Team spirit is the soul of the organization. He should empathize with them during difficult times. Empathizing with their personal problems makes them stronger-mentally and emotionally.
A meaningful and challenging job accomplished inculcates a sense of achievement among employees. This motivational aspect drives them to fulfill goals.
You must know your identity, your needs and you must have a strong urge to do anything to achieve your goals. Once you are self-motivated, only then you can motivate others to achieve their goals and to harmonize their personal goals with the common goals of the organization.