THE RELATION BETWEEN THE THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS
There is reason to believe that an insufficiency of the parathyroid gland checks to some extent the function of the thyroid gland. No proof of the existence of a. The thyroid gland and parathyroid glands are a group of endocrine glands located in the base of the neck. These glands play a vital role in maintaining the. Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, variably located on the back of the thyroid gland. . first documented the putative function of the glands in , noting the connection between their.
With that in mind, let's begin by looking at the thyroid gland. Thyroid overview In essence, the thyroid gland is the thermostat of the body. It is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body and specifically controls how quickly the body uses energy, how it makes proteins, and the body's sensitivity to other hormones. The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine and convert it into thyroid hormones -- primarily, thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3.
Parathyroid gland - Wikipedia
Normal thyroid cells accumulate and retain iodide far, far more efficiently than do any other cells in the body. Most cells don't absorb iodine at all, but some, including thyroid cancer cells and breast epithelial cells, can to a limited degree.
Thyroid cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine as bound to thyroglobulin to make T3 and T4. We will cover this process in more detail a little later. T3 and T4 are then released into the bloodstream and transported throughout the body, where they control metabolism i. Every cell in the body depends upon thyroid hormones for regulation of their metabolism.Thyroid Gland Anatomy -2
Anatomically speaking, the thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland two larger lobes connected by a narrower isthmus located between the Adam's apple and the clavicle. When viewed from the front of the body, the thyroid totally covers the trachea. Nevertheless, a normal thyroid gland cannot be felt externally. If a doctor can "see" it or "feel" it when touching the neck with his fingers, it's enlarged.
Under normal circumstances, it's soft and flat. Not surprisingly for such an important organ, it is richly serviced by multiple arteries and veins, which makes surgery on the thyroid that much more difficult. In addition, surgeons face further complications since the nerves that service the vocal cords run right next to the arteries that provide blood to the thyroid. Bottom line is that the thyroid is intricately entwined with key nerves and blood vessels.
And it's not just surgery on the thyroid that presents problems. Tracheotomies, for example, must be performed either above or below the thyroid gland.
It is also the main reason doctors prefer to "kill" the thyroid with radioactive iodine rather than remove it surgically a procedure we will talk more about later. At the micro level, the thyroid is primarily comprised of spheres called follicles.
The follicles themselves are primarily composed of two types of cells: On the outside circumference of the follicles are the cuboidal follicular cells. The follicular cells produce two iodine based compounds, thyroxine tetraiodothyronine, also known as T4 and triiodothyronine also known as T3.
On the inside circumference, or lumen of the follicle, is a brush border composed of hairlike extensions not visible in the slide below. This allows for the easy deposit and removal of key hormonal components into the follicular lumen see slide below as required for production of T3 and T4.
The parafollicular cells C cells sit scattered about the outer edge of the follicles on top of the follicular cells and produce calcitonin, a minor regulator of calcium in the body.
Thyroid hormones When talking about thyroid hormones, we're actually talking about four bio-chemicals: Thyroglobulin is a protein not a hormone produced by the thyroid. It is synthesized from amino acids and iodide and stored in the follicular lumen as colloid and used entirely within the thyroid gland in the production of the thyroid hormones. T3 triiodothyronine affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate.
As a side note, the 3 in its name refers to the fact that it contains 3 iodine atoms. T4 thyroxine, AKA tetraiodothyronine is the prohormone from which the body extracts T3. It is synthesized from residues of the amino acid tyrosine, found in thyroglobulin.
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Every cell in the body depends upon the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 for regulation of their metabolism. Thyroid functions The thyroid gland makes three hormones that it releases secretes into the bloodstream.
Two of these hormones, called thyroxine T4 and triiodothyronine T3increase your body's metabolic rate. Essentially, the body's metabolic rate is how quickly the cells in your body use the energy stored within them.
Thyroid hormones make cells use more energy. By controlling how much energy our cells use, thyroid hormones also help to regulate our body temperature. Heat is released when energy is used, increasing our body temperature.
Thyroid gland and parathyroid glands
Thyroid hormones also play a role in making proteins, the building blocks of the body's cells. They also increase the use of the body's fat and glucose stores. In order to make T3 and T4, the thyroid gland needs iodine, a substance found in the food we eat.
T4 is called T4 because it contains four atoms of iodine. T3 contains three atoms of iodine. In the cells and tissues of the body most T4 is converted to T3.
T3 is the more active hormone; it influences the activity of all the cells and tissues of your body. Because its our nervous system that separates us from all other plant and animal life--and calcium provides the electrical system for our nervous system. When our calcium levels get elevated almost always due to a bad parathyroid glandthen we can have changes in our personality typically noticed by our loved ones and many other nervous-system symptoms depression, etc.
So, parathyroid disease is not just about osteoporosis and kidney stones, it is primarily about us feeling "normal" and enjoying life. The ONLY purpose of the parathyroid glands is to regulate the calcium level in our bodies within a very narrow range so that the nervous and muscular systems can function properly. This is all they do. They measure the amount of calcium in the blood every minute of every day When the calcium in the blood is high enough, then the parathyroids shut down and stop making PTH.
The single major disease of parathyroid glands is over-activity of one or more of the parathyroids which make too much parathyroid hormone causing a potentially serious calcium imbalance too high calcium in the blood.
This is called hyperparathyroidism and this is the disease that this entire web site is about. There are 4 parathyroids glands. We all have 4 parathyroids glands. Except in rare casesparathyroid glands are in the neck behind the thyroid. Parathyroids are NOT related to the thyroid except they are neighbors in the neck. The thyroid gland controls much of your body's metabolism, but the parathyroid glands control body calcium.
They have no relationship except they are neighbors.
Parathyroid glands make a hormone, called "Parathyroid Hormone". Just like calcium, PTH has a normal range in our blood All four parathyroid glands do the exact same thing. Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your blood.
Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your bones. Removing all 4 parathyroid glands will cause very bad symptoms of too little calcium hypOparathyroidism. HypOparathyroidism is the opposite of hypERparathyroidism and it is very rare It is quite uncommon for 3 or 4 glands to go bad. When one of your parathyroid glands go bad and makes too much hormone, the excess hormone goes to the bones and takes calcium out of the bones and puts it in your blood. It's the high calcium in the blood that makes you feel bad.
Everybody with a bad parathyroid gland will eventually develop bad osteoporosis--unless the bad gland is removed. Parathyroids almost never develop cancer--so stop worrying about that! However, not removing the parathyroid tumor and leaving the calcium high for a number of years will increase the chance of developing other cancers in your body breast, colon, kidney, and prostate.
There is only ONE way to treat parathyroid problems--Surgery. You should educate yourself about the new surgical treatments available. Do not have an "exploratory" operation to find the bad parathyroid tumor--this old fashioned operation is too big and dangerous.