BBC Bitesize - GCSE Media Studies - Target audience - Revision 1
But being exposed to media influence, images and messages doesn't healthy eating and lifestyle habits, and promoting positive, respectful relationships. tions and less rich media for unequivocal com- relationship between message ambiguity and media richness .. the data to test whether media of higher rich-. The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster caused a global panic by a release of harmful radionuclides. The University of Tokyo collaborated with the Fukushima local government to conduct a radiation-health-seminar for a total of residents, at 12 different locations in Fukushima.
Future work should clarify both romantic experiences as well as sexual experiences in relation to beliefs about sexual perfectionism.
Given the exploratory nature of the research, caution needs to be taken in drawing conclusions from the findings. Instead the findings should be used as a starting point from which to do more extensive research on this topic. Future research needs to be designed to test the specific processes that may lie behind the relationships found in this data. In order to properly test for media effects using a cultivation paradigm, future work will need to capture overall television exposure to see if it is related to beliefs about romantic relationship destiny.
However, past research has shown that cultivation of specific attitudes may be related to consumption of specific genres, rather than undifferentiated television consumption Perse, Ferguson, and McLeod, However, cultivation theory, as traditionally used, does not lend itself easily to incorporating non-television media into the research, nor to asking how variables such as preference for, or liking of, media may influence exposure.
Social cognitive theory Bandura,on the other hand, may also help inform the results found and function as a basis for future work. Indeed, the theory provides a potentially sound explanation for how media function as sources of cultural information about relationships and shape the formation of attitudes about romance as well as subsequent behavior.
To test the theory more precisely, we suggest that future work focus on assessing individual differences that may influence how and why an individual prefers romance media, how those differences may influence how much the individual exposes themselves to that type of media, if and how preconceptions may influence how the individual attends to, retains, and interprets the messages in the media, and if and how individual traits in people influence how they incorporate media messages into their own romantic lives Bandura, The study focused on college students because people in this particular age group tend to be avid popular media consumers, and there is no reason to assume that these preliminary findings would generalize to an older sample.
People might become increasingly wiser to unrealistic messages portrayed in popular media as they have more actual relationship experiences themselves, although interestingly we did not find relationship experience related to these dysfunctional beliefs.
In addition, given the correlational design of the study, no answer can be provided as to whether consuming media directly affects people's relationship beliefs, whether people with predisposed beliefs seek out media that confirm these beliefs, whether the relationship is bi-directional, or whether other unaccounted for variables are responsible for the associations found.
Future research on the influences of media messages on people's relationship beliefs should also incorporate experimental methods that help tease apart causality.
The potential for bidirectional influence — the pre-existence of beliefs about relationships leads to exposure to romance media and exposure to romance media reinforces beliefs about relationships — should also be explored using a combination of correlational and experimental designs. While we are excited about the future of such work, we are reserved in terms of what can be concluded based on these initial exploratory findings. We do, however, hope that preliminary work will inspire others to carry this line of research forward.
Author correspondence to Dr Bjarne M. Testing and interpreting interactions. Young people's cultural models of romance and love. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 13, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Advances in theory and research, 2nd ed. Identification as a process of incidental learning.
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Beliefs in Relationship Destiny
Journal of Family Psychology, 10, Affect and cognition in close relationships: Toward an integrative model. Cognition and Emotion, 1, From girls into women: Scripts from sexuality and romance in Seventeen magazine. The Journal of Sex Research, 35, Applied MRC analysis for the behavioral sciences 2nd ed. Cognition and relationship maladjustment: Developmental of a measure of dysfunctional relationship beliefs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, Unrealistic beliefs in clinical couples: Their relationship to expectations, goals, and satisfaction.
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Personal Relationships, 9, The analysis of mass mediated messages. AV Communication Review, 17, Journal of Communication, 26, Growing up with television: Advances in theory and research pp. Beliefs about relationships in relation to television viewing, soap opera viewing, and self-monitoring. Developmental, Personality, Social, 18, Television's influence on social reality.
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Journal of Family Psychology, 6, The influence of relationship beliefs and problem-solving responses on satisfaction in romantic relationships. Human Communication Research, 17, Identifying the romantic agenda in top-grossing movies. Investigating media's influence on adolescent sexuality pp. Cultivation in the newer media environment.
Communication Research, 21, Cultivation theory and research: Human Communication Research, 19, Executive producersAbrams, P. ProducersKlein, M. Do talk shows cultivate adolescents' views of the world? Journal of Communication, 51, Does television viewing cultivate unrealistic expectations about marriage? Journal of Communication, 52, Is life just a romantic novel? How we studied psychological stress and technology use In the survey, respondents were asked about their use of social networking sites: We also asked about their use of their mobile phone; the number of messages they text an average of 32 messages per daypictures sharing via text an average of 2 pictures per dayand the number of people that they text with an average of 4 people per day.
Given the important differences in stress levels based on age, education, marital status, and employment status, we used regression analysis to control for these factors. By using regression analysis we are able determine the degree to which technology use is specifically associated with stress by holding demographic characteristics constant. Since men and women tend to experience stress differently, we ran separate analyses for each sex.
Those who are more educated and those who are married or living with a partner report lower levels of stress. We found that women, and those with fewer years of education, tend to report higher levels of stress, while those who are married or living with a partner report less psychological stress see Table 1 in Appendix A.
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For women but not menthose who are younger, and those who are employed in paid work outside of the home also tend to experience less stress. The frequency of internet and social media use has no direct relationship to stress in men.
For women, the use of some technologies is tied to lower stress. For men, there is no relationship between psychological stress and frequent use of social media, mobile phones, or the internet more broadly. Men who use these technologies report similar levels of stress when compared with non-users. For women, there is evidence that tech use is tied to modestly lower levels of stress. Specifically, the more pictures women share through their mobile phones, the more emails they send and receive, and the more frequently they use Twitter, the lower their reported stress.
However, with the exception of Twitter, for the average person, the relationship between stress and these technologies is relatively small. Women who are heavier participants in these activities report less stress.
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From this survey we are not able to definitively determine why frequent uses of some technologies are related to lower levels of reported stress for women.
Existing studies have found that social sharing of both positive and negative events can be associated with emotional well-being and that women tend to share their emotional experiences with a wider range of people than do men. It is also possible that the use of these media replaces activities or allows women to reorganize activities that would otherwise be more stressful. Previous Pew Research reports have also documented that social media users also tend to report higher levels of perceived social support.
This kind of stress comes from exposure to stressful life events. It is not directly a measure of whether someone feels that their own life is overloaded. Previous Pew Research reports have documented that social media users tend to perceive higher levels of social support in their networks.
They also have a greater awareness of the resources within their network of relationships — on and offline. This awareness has generally been perceived as a social benefit. Individuals who are aware of the things that are happening with their friends and the informal resources available to them through their social ties have more social capital.
We wanted to know if the awareness afforded by the use of digital technologies was limited to an awareness of what others could provide social capitalor if it also included an awareness of the problems and stressful events that take place in the lives of friends, family, and acquaintances. Such awareness is not inherently negative. We additionally asked if the person s the event happened to was someone close to them a strong tieor an acquaintance whom they were not very close with a weak tieor both.
The average adult in our sample knew people who had experienced 5 of the 12 events that we asked about. Knowing that the sexes tend to be very different in their awareness of stressful event in the lives of those around them, we further divided our analysis into a comparison of women and men.
We also anticipated that some technologies might be more commonly used for communication with close social ties, and primarily provide for an awareness of major events in the lives of close friends and family, while others may be more suited for awareness of events in the lives of looser acquaintances Appendix A: Women are more aware than men of major events in the lives of people who are close to them.
Previous research has found that women tend to be more aware of the life events of people in their social network than are men. For both men and women, those who were younger and those with more years of education tended to know of more major events in the lives of people around them. In addition, we found that women who were married or living with a partner, and women employed in paid work outside the home, were more aware of events in the lives of their acquaintances weak tiesbut that this was not related to awareness of events in the lives of close friends and family.
However, the specific technologies that are associated with awareness vary for men and women. Among both men and women, Pinterest users have a higher level of awareness of events in the lives of close friends and family.
The more frequently someone used Pinterest, the more events they were aware of: Compared with a man with similar demographic characteristics that does not use the following technologies: