The Merchant of Venice - Wikipedia
The Merchant of Venice Portia Quotes Second, she's incredibly generous and values human relationships more than wealth (as opposed to, say, Shylock. to know about the quotes talking about Friendship in The Merchant of Venice, to do anything to help his friend, including loaning him the money to woo Portia . "person" available to his friend, which may suggest a sexual relationship. The Merchant of Venice Love Quotes. See more famous quotes from PORTIA Yes, yes, it was Bassanio—as I think, so was he called. NERISSA True, madam.
But though I am a daughter to his blood, I am not to his manners. Antonio borrows money from Shylock to help his friend, Bassanio, court Portiabut, through misfortune, is unable to repay and is subjected to an onerous default a literal "pound of flesh" cut from his body. In addition, the play contains subplots regarding Bassanio's courtship of Portia; [a] Launcelot Gobbo's humorous interactions with his father, and his change of allegiance from Shylock to Portia and Bassanio; and Jessica and Lorenzo's elopement, with Shylock's casket of Ducats.
She speaks a grand total of words over the play's five acts. Our house is hell and thou, a merry devil, Didst rob it of some taste of tediousness.
Gobbo is leaving Shylock's service to give his allegiance to Bassiano, and Jessica bemoans the loss of his company in a household that is "hell". After Gobbo leaves, she muses to herself on what flaws are in her character that makes her ashamed to be her father's daughter, and that although she is related to him by blood she is alienated by his manners. She concludes the soliloquy determined to marry Lorenzo and converting to Christianity. Hear you me, Jessica, Lock up my doors, and when you hear the drum And the vile squealing of the wry-necked fife, Clamber not you up to the casements then, Nor thrust your head into the public street To gaze on Christian fools with varnished faces, But stop my house's ears I mean my casements.
Let not the sound of shallow fopp'ry enter My sober house. Shylock, The Merchant of Venice  In Act 2, Scene 4, Gobbo bears the letter, containing Jessica's plans to elope with Lorenzo and as much of her father's valuables as she can find, to Lorenzo.
He is pleased by the letter and its contents, and bids Gobbo return to let her know that he has received the letter and will not fail her. In Act 2, Scene 5, however, Gobbo is intercepted by Shylock, who berates him for his change of allegiance. Gobbo seizes on Shylock's repeated mentions of Jessica's name as a pretense to call her. When she arrives, Shylock gives her the keys to his house and the responsibility of keeping it safe while he dines with Antonio and Bassanio.
Upon learning there will be a masqueradehe enjoins her to shutter the windows and not "gaze on Christian fools with varnished faces". Having no other option, Gobbo whispers to Jessica to "look out at window for all this.
Shylock catches the interaction and asks Jessica what Gobbo said, but Jessica deceives him and claims he was simply saying goodbye. Shylock then complains of Gobbo's sloth and vociferous appetite, claiming he is well rid of him and glad he now serves Bassiano, whom he dislikes. He leaves for the dinner, and Jessica soliloquises: Farewell, and if my fortune be not crossed, I have a father, you a daughter, lost. Jessica, The Merchant of Venice  In the following scene—Act 2, Scene 6—Lorenzo and his friends come to Shylock's house, and Jessica greets them from a window, dressed as a boy.
She asks Lorenzo to confirm his identity before lowering a casket of her father's Ducats.
Lorenzo bids her descend, but Jessica demurs, ashamed of her disguise. Lorenzo persuades her, and she goes inside to bring more of Shylock's Ducats. Lorenzo praises her to his friends: Antonio then arrives to tell Gratiano that the winds are propitious for sailing and that Bassanio is leaving immediately for Belmont to woo Portia.
Gratiano expresses his desire to leave the city immediately. Jessica next appears at Belmont in Act 3, Scene 2, accompanying Lorenzo and Salerio, a messenger delivering a letter to Bassiano from Antonio. The doctor is Portia in disguise, and the law clerk who accompanies her is Nerissa, also disguised as a man.
As Balthasar, Portia repeatedly asks Shylock to show mercy in a famous speechadvising him that mercy "is twice blest: It blesseth him that gives and him that takes" IV, i, However, Shylock adamantly refuses any compensations and insists on the pound of flesh. As the court grants Shylock his bond and Antonio prepares for Shylock's knife, Portia deftly appropriates Shylock's argument for "specific performance".
She says that the contract allows Shylock to remove only the flesh, not the "blood", of Antonio see quibble. Thus, if Shylock were to shed any drop of Antonio's blood, his "lands and goods" would be forfeited under Venetian laws.
She tells him that he must cut precisely one pound of flesh, no more, no less; she advises him that "if the scale do turn, But in the estimation of a hair, Thou diest and all thy goods are confiscate. She cites a law under which Shylock, as a Jew and therefore an "alien", having attempted to take the life of a citizen, has forfeited his property, half to the government and half to Antonio, leaving his life at the mercy of the Duke.
The Duke pardons Shylock's life. Antonio asks for his share "in use" until Shylock's death, when the principal will be given to Lorenzo and Jessica. At Antonio's request, the Duke grants remission of the state's half of forfeiture, but on the condition that Shylock convert to Christianity and bequeath his entire estate to Lorenzo and Jessica IV,i.
Bassanio does not recognise his disguised wife, but offers to give a present to the supposed lawyer. First she declines, but after he insists, Portia requests his ring and Antonio's gloves. Antonio parts with his gloves without a second thought, but Bassanio gives the ring only after much persuasion from Antonio, as earlier in the play he promised his wife never to lose, sell or give it. Nerissa, as the lawyer's clerk, succeeds in likewise retrieving her ring from Gratiano, who does not see through her disguise.
At Belmont, Portia and Nerissa taunt and pretend to accuse their husbands before revealing they were really the lawyer and his clerk in disguise V. After all the other characters make amends, Antonio learns from Portia that three of his ships were not stranded and have returned safely after all.
The title page from a printing of Giovanni Fiorentino's 14th-century tale Il Pecorone The first page of The Merchant of Venice, printed in the Second Folio of The forfeit of a merchant's deadly bond after standing surety for a friend's loan was a common tale in England in the late 16th century.
The play was mentioned by Francis Meres inso it must have been familiar on the stage by that date. The title page of the first edition in states that it had been performed "divers times" by that date.
Salerino's reference to his ship the Andrew I,i,27 is thought to be an allusion to the Spanish ship St. A date of —97 is considered consistent with the play's style. The play was entered in the Register of the Stationers Companythe method at that time of obtaining copyright for a new play, by James Roberts on 22 July under the title The Merchant of Venice, otherwise called The Jew of Venice.
On 28 October Roberts transferred his right to the play to the stationer Thomas Heyes ; Heyes published the first quarto before the end of the year. It was printed again inas part of William Jaggard's so-called False Folio. Afterward, Thomas Heyes' son and heir Laurence Heyes asked for and was granted a confirmation of his right to the play, on 8 July The edition is generally regarded as being accurate and reliable.
It is the basis of the text published in the First Foliowhich adds a number of stage directions, mainly musical cues. Critics today still continue to argue over the play's stance on the Jews and Judaism. Shylock and Jessica by Maurycy Gottlieb.
Shylock as a villain[ edit ] English society in the Elizabethan era has been described as "judeophobic". In Venice and in some other places, Jews were required to wear a red hat at all times in public to make sure that they were easily identified, and had to live in a ghetto protected by Christian guards. One interpretation of the play's structure is that Shakespeare meant to contrast the mercy of the main Christian characters with the vengefulness of a Jew, who lacks the religious grace to comprehend mercy.
Similarly, it is possible that Shakespeare meant Shylock's forced conversion to Christianity to be a " happy ending " for the character, as, to a Christian audience, it saves his soul and allows him to enter Heaven.
The Nazis used the usurious Shylock for their propaganda. Shortly after Kristallnacht inThe Merchant of Venice was broadcast for propagandistic ends over the German airwaves.
This was the first known attempt by a dramatist to reverse the negative stereotype that Shylock personified. With slight variations much of English literature up until the 20th century depicts the Jew as "a monied, cruel, lecherous, avaricious outsider tolerated only because of his golden hoard".
Many modern readers and theatregoers have read the play as a plea for tolerance, noting that Shylock is a sympathetic character.
Portia (The Merchant of Venice) - Wikipedia
They cite as evidence that Shylock's "trial" at the end of the play is a mockery of justice, with Portia acting as a judge when she has no right to do so. The characters who berated Shylock for dishonesty resort to trickery in order to win. In addition, Shakespeare gives Shylock one of his most eloquent speeches: Later in the play, she disguises herself as a man, then assumes the role of a lawyer's apprentice named Balthazar whereby she saves the life of Bassanio's friend, Antonioin court.
In the court scenes, Portia finds a technicality in the bond, thereby outwitting Shylock and saving Antonio's life when everyone else including Antonio fails. It is Portia who delivers one of the most famous speeches in The Merchant of Venice: The quality of mercy is not strain'd.
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven Upon the place beneath. It is twice blest: It blesseth him that gives and him that takes.
Despite Portia's lack of formal legal training, she wins her case by referring to the details of the exact language of the law. Her success involves prevailing on technicalities rather than the merits of the situation.
She uses the tactics of what is sometimes called a Philadelphia lawyer.