Oxpecker and antelope symbiotic relationship

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oxpecker and antelope symbiotic relationship

oxpecker, relationship, symbiosis, kudu, benefits, bush facts, klaserie, of red- billed oxpeckers and watched as the giant-eared antelope was. These results suggest that the oxpecker-mammal relationship is more complex .. both in the cleaner fish symbiosis and in the oxpecker-mammal relationship. Oxpeckers have a symbiotic relationship with oxen, antelopes, zebras, hippos, rhinos, giraffes, and many ungulates (hoofed-animals) in Africa.

While this demonstrated which tick species oxpeckers prefer to eat blue ticks, Boophilus decoloratus, and brown ear ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculatusit did not show what effect oxpeckers might have in the field where ticks are attaching continuously to the host, oxpeckers will always have the option of other hosts to feed on, and where there is unlikely to be a ratio as high as five birds to two hosts 24 h a day.

Although tick feeding has been the focus of much attention, the oxpecker's habit of feeding at open wounds has generally been ignored e. Some authors have even argued that this behavior may be beneficial to mammals because it keeps the wound clean and prevents both bacterial infection and infestation by Calliphoridae blow-flies Breitwisch, ; Someren, What is needed is an experiment similar to the ones carried out on cleaner fish Grutter, where the cleaner is excluded from a group of hosts and the effects compared to a control group.

If the birds do provide tick reduction benefits, then we should expect to see a significant increase in the numbers of ticks on the experimental animals. If blood is the favored food, however, then we might predict that the controls will have significantly more wounds than animals relieved of oxpecker attention.

In this paper I present results from a field experiment designed to test the effects of excluding oxpeckers on their hosts. The work was carried out in the lowveld of southern Zimbabwe on red-billed oxpeckers and a small herd of domestic cattle.

oxpecker and antelope symbiotic relationship

Sentinel Ranch has a large population of red-billed oxpeckers that feed both on game and a study herd of 22 Bonsmara oxen the Bonsmara is a South African variety of cow, a cross between Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Up to 60 individual birds visited the kraal cattle enclosure every morning, where they would spend approximately 2 h feeding on the animals. Small groups of oxpeckers continued to visit and feed on the oxen in the field throughout the day Weeks, Cattle are hosts to five species of ixodid tick at Sentinel blue ticks, brown ear ticks, bont ticks Amblyommma hebraeum, red-legged ticks Rhipicephalus evertsi, and bont-legged ticks Hyalomma marginatum.

Ticks have three life stages larva, nymph, and adulteach of which requires a different individual host on which they attach and engorge with blood before dropping off and metamorphosing to the next stage. The exception is the one-host blue tick, which goes through its entire life cycle a process that takes roughly 4 weeks on a single host. Adult male ticks of all species spend up to a month attached to their host; adult females are attached for about 1 week.

For the experiment, I arbitrarily divided the herd into 2 groups of 11 animals, experimentals and controls. For the first treatment 21 November DecemberI excluded oxpeckers from the experimental group for 4 weeks.

Because adult ticks are continuously attaching to the hosts and their drop-off rate is low, this period would have been sufficient to detect any effect oxpeckers might have had on tick loads.

oxpecker and antelope symbiotic relationship

An assistant stayed with the herd throughout the day oxpeckers do not feed during the night and chased off any oxpeckers that attempted to land on the oxen.

I remained with the control group, which oxpeckers continued to visit and feed on as normal. The two groups fed in two separate grazing areas, which I alternated every 2 days. They spent the night in separate cattle kraals, which I alternated every week. Controlling for grazing areas was particularly important because the ranch has large populations of other potential tick hosts, notably impala Aepyceros melampuseland Taurotragus oryxkudu Tragelaphus strepsicerosand warthog Phacochoerus aethipicus.

There is some debate as to whether the relationship between the oxpecker and its host truly is symbiotic, or whether the oxpecker is semi-parasitic. Cape Buffalo Benefits A bison -- in Africa this ox-like creature is known as the Cape buffalo -- that is serving as host to the oxpecker does receive some benefits, although the overall merit is speculative.

Ticks and other insects feasting on the buffalo are removed by the oxpecker. Oxpeckers leave no crevice untouched, and will even work their ways into their hosts ears to remove insects, earwax and parasites.

In addition, the oxpecker will eat diseased wound tissue, keeping wounds clean as they heal. Oxpeckers also will hiss when they become alarmed, and can alert their host --who is a prey mammal-- to potential danger. Oxpecker Benefits The oxpecker will spend his entire life on his hosts, except for nesting, which occurs in cavities of trees.

The Jungle Store: The Symbiotic Relationship Of The Oxpecker & Its Host

In the relationship they mutually benefit from the each other. Continuing with our theme of Disney science, mutualism can be seen in The Lion King. When Simba joins them there is another mutualism: Real Life Mutualisms Honeyguide and Honey Badger The honeyguide is a bird and the honey badger is a creature closely related to weasels.

oxpecker and antelope symbiotic relationship

Both of these animals have a mutual interest, they both really like honey. The honeyguide cannot get the honey by itself, the bee hives are too tough for it to peck in to and it is likely to get stung. The honeybadger is well known for being vicious and quite happy to attack for its own gains, such as tearing apart bee hives for honey. The honeyguide will locate a promising beehive and remember its location.

Oxpeckers and their symbiotic relationships

Then it goes in search of a honey badger, calls to it and the honey badger follows the honey guide. The honey guide flies from tree to tree calling to the honey badger to keep following until they reach the hive. The honey badger tears apart the hive and eats as much honey as it wants. The honey guide waits for the honey badger to leave, then can safely enjoy the remaining honey.

oxpecker and antelope symbiotic relationship

The honeybadger always leaves some honey for the honeyguide. Benefit to the honeyguide: Benefit to the honey badger: The honeyguide saves the honey badger the trouble of locating the hive. The honeybadger then eats its fill of honey and leaves the leftovers for the honeyguide.