Petroleum - Oil and Natural Gas | energy4me
Building on work initiated by the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers The technical estimation of Petroleum Resources quantities involves the economical, regulatory, and legal) and convey a relationship to the Likelihood of Project occurring within the Earth's crust, discovered and undiscovered ( recoverable. Petroleum & Earth Resources Technology (PERT) is established to support the research and development works including technical relation of. An important share of government revenues is collected from the oil and gas industry, which Construction, ,, % . Clean technology is broadly defined as any process, product or service that reduces protection activities, through the sustainable use of natural resources, or through the use of.
Mobile and smaller slimhole drilling rigs reduce the size of the area that drilling activities affect. The use of horizontal and directional drilling makes it possible for a single well to produce oil from a much larger area, which reduces the number of wells necessary to develop an oil resource. Hydraulic fracturing An oil production technique known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is used to produce oil from shale and other tight geologic formations.
Hubbert peak theory
This technique has allowed the United States to significantly increase domestic oil production and reduce U. Hydraulic fracturing has some effects on the environment. Fracturing rock requires large amounts of water, and it uses potentially hazardous chemicals to release the oil from the rock strata. In some areas of the country, significant water use for oil production may affect the availability of water for other uses and can potentially affect aquatic habitats.
Faulty well construction or improper handling may result in leaks and spills of fracturing fluids. Hydraulic fracturing also produces large amounts of wastewater that may contain dissolved chemicals and other contaminants, which may require treatment before disposal or reuse. Because of the amount of water used and the complexity of treating some of the wastewater components, treatment and disposal are important and challenging issues.
Wastewater is frequently disposed of by injection into deep wells, typically into saltwater aquifers. The injection of wastewater can cause earthquakes that may cause damage and are large enough to be felt. Oil spills Most oil spills are the result of accidents at oil wells or on the pipelines, ships, trains, and trucks that move oil from wells to refineries.
Oil spills contaminate soil and water and may cause devastating explosions and fires. The federal government and industry are developing standards, regulations, and procedures to reduce the potential for accidents and spills and to clean up spills when they occur.
Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act ofwhich requires all new oil tankers built for use between U. The amount of oil spilled from ships dropped significantly during the s partly because of these double-hull standards.
There is a difference between a barrel of oil, which is a measure of oil, and a barrel of oil equivalent BOEwhich is a measure of energy.
Many sources of energy, such as fission, solar, wind, and coal, are not subject to the same near-term supply restrictions that oil is. Availability of cheap, but hard to transport, natural gas in some oil fields has led to using natural gas to fuel enhanced oil recovery. Similarly, natural gas in huge amounts is used to power most Athabasca tar sands plants.
Cheap natural gas has also led[ citation needed ] to ethanol fuel produced with a net EROEI of less than 1, although figures in this area are controversial because methods to measure EROEI are in debate. The assumption of inevitable declining volumes of oil and gas produced per unit of effort is contrary to recent experience in the US.
In the United States, as ofthere has been an ongoing decade-long increase in the productivity of oil and gas drilling in all the major tight oil and gas plays. The US Energy Information Administration reports, for instance, that in the Bakken Shale production area of North Dakota, the volume of oil produced per day of drilling rig time in January was 4 times the oil volume per day of drilling five years previous, in Januaryand nearly 10 times the oil volume per day of ten years previous, in January In the Marcellus gas region of the northeast, The volume of gas produced per day of drilling time in January was 3 times the gas volume per day of drilling five years previous, in Januaryand 28 times the gas volume per day of drilling ten years previous, in January International Energy Outlook Insofar as economic growth is driven by oil consumption growth, post-peak societies must adapt.
During the last two centuries we have known nothing but exponential growth and in parallel we have evolved what amounts to an exponential-growth culture, a culture so heavily dependent upon the continuance of exponential growth for its stability that it is incapable of reckoning with problems of non growth. King Hubbert, Exponential Growth as a Transient Phenomenon in Human History Some economists describe the problem as uneconomic growth or a false economy.
At the political right, Fred Ikle has warned about "conservatives addicted to the Utopia of Perpetual Growth". The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers natural gaspesticides oiland hydrocarbon fueled irrigation. Economy the maximum U. To achieve a sustainable economy world population will have to be reduced by two-thirds, says the study.
Peak oil - Wikipedia
The peaking of global oil along with the decline in regional natural gas production may precipitate this agricultural crisis sooner than generally expected.
Dale Allen Pfeiffer claims that coming decades could see spiraling food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level such as never experienced before. Peak gas Doug Reynolds predicted in that the North American peak would occur in Peak coal Although observers believe that peak coal is significantly further out than peak oil, Hubbert studied the specific example of anthracite in the US, a high grade coal, whose production peaked in the s.
Hubbert found that anthracite matches a curve closely. More recent estimates suggest an earlier peak. Peteves of the Institute for Energy IFEprepared for European Commission Joint Research Centre, reaches similar conclusions and states that ""coal might not be so abundant, widely available and reliable as an energy source in the future". Peak uranium In a paper in after a review of US fissionable reserves, Hubbert notes of nuclear power: So, it's at best a bridging technology You can use the rest of the uranium to breed plutonium then we'd have at least times as much fuel to use.
But that means you're making plutonium, which is an extremely dangerous thing to do in the dangerous world that we live in.
The world's largest helium-rich natural gas fields are found in the United States, especially in the Hugoton and nearby gas fields in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Helium production is expected to decline along with natural gas production in these areas. Helium, which is the second-lightest chemical element, will rise to the upper layers of Earth's atmospherewhere it can forever break free from Earth's gravitational attraction.
Peak copper Hubbert applied his theory to "rock containing an abnormally high concentration of a given metal"  and reasoned that the peak production for metals such as coppertinleadzinc and others would occur in the time frame of decades and iron in the time frame of two centuries like coal.
Peak gold InAaron Regent president of the Canadian gold giant Barrick Gold said that global output has been falling by roughly one million ounces a year since the start of the decade.
The total global mine supply has dropped by 10pc as ore quality erodes, implying that the roaring bull market of the last eight years may have further to run. It is increasingly difficult to find ore," he said. South Africa's output has halved since peaking in