The Greek Myth of Odysseus and the Cyclops
The myth of Odysseus and the Cyclops is one of the most known Greek myths, narrated by Homer in his Odyssey. The one-eyed, giant Cyclops Polyphemus and. on the vexed problem of the relationship between the Homeric and Hesiodic . Polyphemus as 'the prenatal nucleus of Odysseus', and his single eye as a. According to Ovid in Metamorphoses, Polyphemus loved Galatea, a Sicilian Nereid, and killed her lover Acis. When the Greek hero Odysseus was cast ashore.
It was at the island of the Cyclops that things really came unstuck. Exploring this island, hunting for goats, Odysseus and his men became trapped in the cave of Polyphemus, a one-eyed giant who happened to be the son of Poseidon, Lord of the Sea.
Through the resourcefulness and nerve of their captain, the soldiers blinded the Cyclops and escaped his lair clinging to the bellies of sheep. But as they rowed back to the ship, ducking the boulders that the Cyclops hurled at them from the shore, Odysseus lost his self-control for just one moment. He roared at Polyphemus on the beach: Polyphemus called on Poseidon to avenge him and Odysseus, as a result, knew nothing but bad luck from that day.
Gods, monsters and stormy weather conspired to drive his ship far from its intended destination. It would be ten long years before Odysseus made it home to Ithaca and his wife and son. The first and most obvious lesson is that self-control is a vital commodity for dealing with change.
Change throws up turbulence in the form of unexpected shocks and blows. Just when you think you are in the clear, you find yourself at the stern screaming abuse at your enemy! An Odyssean fate awaits anyone who tries to navigate change without sufficient self-control. This concerns the limits of personal control.
Perhaps you think that you are the master of your destiny. Perhaps you have an incredible capacity to stay calm under pressure, keeping focused while everyone about you is cracking up. Even so, you should not assume that your focus and nerve will see you through every situation. The fact is most of life is out of our control.
Odysseus and the Cyclops: mastery, humility, and fate – Philosophy for change
No matter what your powers, they have limits. Only the gods are the sovereign masters of fate. This lesson was lost on Odysseus. Fired up from his stellar performance at Troy, he assumed that he was the master of his destiny and could say and do anything he liked. Big mistake, as Poseidon reminded him. Odysseus then kills the prisoner and hides the gold in Palamedes' tent.
He ensures that the letter is found and acquired by Agamemnon, and also gives hints directing the Argives to the gold. This is evidence enough for the Greeks, and they have Palamedes stoned to death.
Other sources say that Odysseus and Diomedes goad Palamedes into descending a well with the prospect of treasure being at the bottom.
When Palamedes reaches the bottom, the two proceed to bury him with stones, killing him. During the funeral games for Achilles, Odysseus competes once again with Telamonian Ajax. Thetis says that the arms of Achilles will go to the bravest of the Greeks, but only these two warriors dare lay claim to that title. The two Argives became embroiled in a heavy dispute about one another's merits to receive the reward. The Greeks dither out of fear in deciding a winner, because they did not want to insult one and have him abandon the war effort.
Nestor suggests that they allow the captive Trojans decide the winner. Enraged and humiliated, Ajax is driven mad by Athena. When he returns to his senses, in shame at how he has slaughtered livestock in his madness, Ajax kills himself by the sword that Hector had given him after their duel. A great warrior, Pyrrhus is also called Neoptolemus Greek for "new warrior".
Upon the success of the mission, Odysseus gives Achilles' armour to him. It is learned that the war can not be won without the poisonous arrows of Heracleswhich are owned by the abandoned Philoctetes.
Odysseus and Diomedes or, according to some accounts, Odysseus and Neoptolemus leave to retrieve them. Upon their arrival, Philoctetes still suffering from the wound is seen still to be enraged at the Danaansespecially at Odysseus, for abandoning him.
Although his first instinct is to shoot Odysseus, his anger is eventually diffused by Odysseus' persuasive powers and the influence of the gods. Odysseus returns to the Argive camp with Philoctetes and his arrows. It is built by Epeius and filled with Greek warriors, led by Odysseus. Some late Roman sources indicate that Odysseus schemed to kill his partner on the way back, but Diomedes thwarts this attempt. In Virgil 's Aeneidwritten between 29 and 19 BC, he is constantly referred to as "cruel Odysseus" Latin dirus Ulixes or "deceitful Odysseus" pellacis, fandi fictor.
Odysseus - Wikipedia
Turnus, in Aeneid, book 9, reproaches the Trojan Ascanius with images of rugged, forthright Latin virtues, declaring in John Dryden 's translation"You shall not find the sons of Atreus here, nor need the frauds of sly Ulysses fear. In Euripides' tragedy Iphigenia at Aulishaving convinced Agamemnon to consent to the sacrifice of his daughter, Iphigenia, to appease the goddess ArtemisOdysseus facilitates the immolation by telling Iphigenia's mother, Clytemnestrathat the girl is to be wed to Achilles.
Odysseus' attempts to avoid his sacred oath to defend Menelaus and Helen offended Roman notions of duty, and the many stratagems and tricks that he employed to get his way offended Roman notions of honour. Odysseus and his crew escape the cyclops Polyphemus. Odyssey Odysseus is probably best known as the eponymous hero of the Odyssey. This epic describes his travails, which lasted for 10 years, as he tries to return home after the Trojan War and reassert his place as rightful king of Ithaca.
On the way home from Troy, after a raid on Ismarus in the land of the Ciconeshe and his twelve ships are driven off course by storms.
Odysseus and the Cyclops
They visit the lethargic Lotus-Eaters and are captured by the Cyclops Polyphemus while visiting his island. After Polyphemus eats several of his men, Polyphemus and Odysseus have a discussion and Odysseus tells Polyphemus his name is "Nobody". Odysseus takes a barrel of wine, and the Cyclops drinks it, falling asleep. Odysseus and his men take a wooden stake, ignite it with the remaining wine, and blind him. While they escape, Polyphemus cries in pain, and the other Cyclopes ask him what is wrong.
Polyphemus cries, "Nobody has blinded me! Odysseus and his crew escape, but Odysseus rashly reveals his real name, and Polyphemus prays to Poseidon, his father, to take revenge. They stay with Aeolusthe master of the winds, who gives Odysseus a leather bag containing all the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home.
Here they found a huge goat pen outside a cave and, inside, all the cheeses and meat they could desire. They were lounging in drowsy contentment when the shepherd came home.
The Cyclops Polyphemus The sight of him brought the Greeks to fullest attention. He was as big as a barn, with a single glaring eye in the middle of his forehead. He was one of the Cyclopes, giant blacksmiths who had built Olympus for the gods. This particular Cyclops was named Polyphemus. He and his neighbors lived like hermits with their flocks. If the Greeks were shocked, Polyphemus was pleasantly surprised.
For here before him at his own hearth was a treat that would nicely vary his diet. Then with a belch he curled up in a corner and drifted happily to sleep.
- Odysseus and the Cyclops: mastery, humility, and fate
Odysseus naturally was beside himself with concern. What had he led his men into?