Protein - Diet and Health - NCBI Bookshelf
health professionals), those that consumed the most animal protein compared to plant protein had a higher risk of death, particularly cardiovascular disease. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and . Cholesterol is still significant even without direct correlation to serum lipids. Learn the basics about protein and shaping your diet with healthy protein foods. processed meat can lower the risk of several diseases and premature death. Previous studies investigating the health effects of animal versus plant was a lower risk of incidence and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. aimed to examine plant versus animal protein in relation to death, and the.
Animal Studies In animals, as in humans, glomerular sclerosis increases with age Couser and Stilmant, ; Guttman and Andersen, However, development of glomerular sclerosis in rats can be delayed either by decreasing the amount of standard chow by one-half to two-thirds that consumed by animals fed ad libitum Berg and Simms, ; Tucker et al.
These findings suggest that dietary protein influences renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and, ultimately, progression of age-related glomerular sclerosis in the healthy animal.
Summary Animal proteins in the diet have not been linked specifically to CHD risk in humans, although high levels induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in laboratory animals. Substitution of soybean protein for animal protein in the diet reduces the level of serum cholesterol in humans, particularly in hypercholesterolemic subjects, and there is evidence that groups eating vegetarian diets have lower average blood cholesterol levels than the general population.
The data linking elevated intakes of animal protein to increased risk of hypertension are weak. Some epidemiologic studies suggest that higher intakes of animal protein may be associated with increased risk of cancer at certain sites, although the data are not entirely consistent.
However, because of the strong positive correlation between dietary protein and fat over the range of normal intakes in most Western populations, it is not clear whether dietary protein exerts an independent effect on cancer. In laboratory experiments, the relationship of dietary protein to carcinogenesis appears to depend upon protein level. Chemically induced carcinogenesis is enhanced as protein intake is increased up to 2 or 3 times the normal requirement.
Higher levels produce no further enhancement and, in many cases, may inhibit tumorigenesis. Although high dietary protein taken as a purified isolated nutrient increases urinary excretion of calcium, there is little evidence that natural diets high in protein increase osteoporosis risk. High intakes of animal protein are hypothesized to lead to progressive glomerular sclerosis and deterioration of renal function by promoting sustained increases in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rates.
Although both human and animal studies indicate that a high-protein intake can increase glomerular filtration rate and age-related progression of renal disease, the effect of high dietary protein on the risk of chronic renal disease in humans needs further investigation. Directions for Research The relative effects of different levels of total protein and different types of protein animal or vegetable in chronic disease etiology and their mechanisms of action e. The long-term effects of protein intake above nutritional requirements on renal function in humans and the relationship of dietary protein to increased risk of end-stage renal disease.
The role of specific amino acids or combinations of amino acids in augmenting chronic disease risk. The optimal range of protein intake animal or vegetable for reducing chronic disease risk.
The effect of the kind and amount of protein upon various stages and mechanisms of neoplastic development. Effect of protein intake on calcium balance of young men given mg calcium daily. Inhibition of aflatoxin-initiated preneoplastic liver lesions by low dietary protein. Nutritional factors and cardiovascular diseases in the Greek Islands Heart Study.
Lovenberg, editor; and Y. Nutritional Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Academic Press, Orlando, Fla. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with specific reference to dietary practices.
A retrospective study of renal cancer with special reference to coffee and animal protein consumption. PMC ] [ PubMed: Van Merwyk, and H. Blood pressure in Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians. Nutrition and longevity in the rat. Longevity and onset of disease with different levels of food intake. Epidemiology of the killer chronic diseases. Nutrition and the Killer Diseases. Cholesterol metabolism in swine fed diets containing either casein or soybean protein.
Dietary fibre and regional large-bowel cancer mortality in Britain. Effects of dietary soy protein on plasma lipid profiles of adult men. Regional nutritional pattern and cancer mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Renal functional reserve in humans. Effect of protein intake on glomerular filtration rate. Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: Protein supplementation and complementation. Evaluation of Proteins for Humans. Blood pressure and diet in normotensive volunteers: A case-control study of dietary and nondietary factors in ovarian cancer.
Dietary protein in relation to plasma cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. Soya protein and atherosclerosis. Dietary fat in relation to tumorigenesis. Dietary fiber and cholesterol metabolism in rabbits and rats. Hypocholesterolemic effect of substituting soybean protein for animal protein in the diet of healthy young women.
Vegetable protein and lipid metabolism. Wilcke, editor;D. Hopkins, editor;and D. Soy Protein and Human Nutrition. Academic Press, New York. Effects of cholestyramine on low density lipoprotein binding sites on liver membranes from rabbits with endogenous hypercholesterolemia induced by a wheat starch-casein diet.
Studies in calcium metabolism. Effects of low calcium and variable protein intake on human calcium metabolism. Dietary protein, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and chemical carcinogenesis in rats. The combined effects of dietary protein and fat on 7,dimethylbenz a anthraceneinduced breast cancer in rats. Effects of dietary protein, fat and energy intake during an initiation phase study of 7,dimethylbenz a anthracene-induced breast cancer in rats. Pathological changes during aging in barrier-reared Fischer male rats.
Mesangial lesions and focal glomerular sclerosis in the aging rat. Multicentre study of soybean protein diet for outpatient hypercholesterolaemic patients. Relation of protein foods to hypertension. Calcium, phosphorus, and osteoporosis. Glomerular injury in uninephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. A consequence of glomerular capillary hypertension. Some dynamic aspects of chemical carcinogenesis.
Influence of diet on the relative incidence of eye, mammary, ear-duct, and liver tumors in rats fed 2-acetylaminofluorene. The influence of dietary casein level on tumor induction with 2-acetylaminofluorene. Energy and Protein Requirements. Technical Report Series No.
World Health Organization, Geneva. Relationships between usual nutrient intake and bone-mineral content of women years of age: Hypercholesterolaemia treated by soybean protein diet. Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: Calcium intake and bone quality in the elderly. Breast cancer mortality and diet in the United States. Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the pancreas.
Soybean protein independently lowers plasma cholesterol levels in primary hypercholesterolemia. Diet and its relation to coronary heart disease and death in three populations. Diet in the epidemiology of carcinoma of the prostate gland. Breast-cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices.
Gastrointestinal cancer and nutrition.
Plant protein may decrease risk of death: (EUFIC)
Progressive intercapillary glomerulosclerosis in aging and irradiated beagles. Plasma cholesterol levels in rabbits fed low fat, low cholesterol diets: Long-term effects of level of protein intake on calcium metabolism in young adult women. Urinary calcium and calcium balance in young men as affected by level of protein and phosphorus intake. The contributions of diet and childbearing to breast-cancer rates.
Associations between breast-cancer mortality rates, child bearing and diet in the United Kingdom. Failure of dietary-casein-induced acidosis to explain the hypercholesterolemia of casein-fed rabbits. Nutrition and prostate cancer: A large-scale cohort study on the relationship between diet and selected cancers of digestive organs.
Bruce, editor;P. Correa, editor;M. Lipkin, editor;S. Tannenbaum, editor;and T. Banbury Report 7—Gastrointestinal Cancer: Cold Spring Harbor, New York. A large scale cohort study on cancer risks by diet—with special reference to the risk reducing effects of green-yellow vegetable consumption.
Nagao, editor;T. Sugimura, editor;S. Takayama, editor;L. Tomatis, editor;L. Wattenberg, editor;and G. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo. Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to diet and reproductive history: An epidemiologic study on the association between diet and breast cancer. Evidence for impairment of transsulfuration pathway in cirrhosis. Effects of dietary protein on turnover, oxidation, and absorption of cholesterol, and on steroid excretion in rabbits.
Effects of dietary proteins and amino acid mixtures on plasma cholesterol levels in rabbits. Plasma cholesterol levels in rabbits fed low fat, cholesterol-free semipurified diets: Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations.
Influence of animal food on the organism of rabbits. Effect of milk protein and fat intake on blood pressure and the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats SHRSP. Epidemiological problems of pancreas cancer. Relationship between dietary proteins, their in vitro digestion products, and serum cholesterol in rats.
A case-control study of diet and colo-rectal cancer. A case-control study of dietary factors and stomach cancer risk in Poland.
Diet, bowel function, fecal characteristics, and large bowel cancer in Denmark and Finland. Effect level of protein intake on urinary and fecal calcium and calcium retention of young adult males. Dietary and other risk factors for stroke in Hawaiian Japanese men. The diet and year death rate in the Seven Countries Study.
Effects of soy protein on cholesterol metabolism in swine. Gibney, editor; and D. Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Vol. Effect of level of protein intake on calcium metabolism and on parathyroid and renal function in the adult human male. Paoletti, editor; and A. Raven Press, New York. Fat and colon cancer: Nutrient intakes in relation to cancer incidence in Hawaii.
Vegetable protein and atherosclerosis. Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits fed cholesterol-free diets. Interaction of animal or vegetable protein with fiber. Effects of animal and vegetable protein in experimental atherosclerosis.
Dietary protein and atherosclerosis. Case-control study of dietary etiological factors: The Melbourne Colorectal Cancer Study. Hypercholesteremia and atherosclerosis induced in rabbits by purified high fat rations devoid of cholesterol. Neoplasms and environmental factors. Dietary potassium and stroke. Acute effects of dietary protein on calcium metabolism in patients with osteoporosis.
Nutritional factors and cardiovascular disease. Role of fat, animal protein, and dietary fiber in breast cancer etiology: Breast cancer following high dietary fat and protein consumption. Calcium metabolism in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women consuming two levels of dietary protein.
Why Food Sources Matter in a High-Protein Diet Given these facts about protein, here are two questions you may want to ask yourself before you embark on a high-protein diet: Is the high-protein diet a healthy long-term option? Should you switch from animal-based proteins to plant-based proteins in your diet?
The study includedparticipants, of whom 85, were women; the average age was Researchers compared people in groups based on the percent of protein in their daily diets: The people who reported high levels of animal protein consumption and were most at risk for death from heart disease were also overweight, more sedentary, consumed alcohol, or smoked.
The Health Advantages of Plant-Based Proteins If plant proteins are healthierwhat happens when you substitute plant protein for animal protein in your diet? Researchers found that for every 3 percent substitution of plant proteins in place of animal protein, there was a 34 percent reduction in mortality risk of death from heart disease. These benefits were seen in both active and inactive people.
Meat-eaters may have a higher risk of death, but plants are the answer
The best animal protein source to swap for a healthier plant protein source, according to this study, was processed red meat. A healthy diet is primarily derived from fruits, nuts, vegetables, and very few processed foods. In this study of postmenopausal women who had developed prediabetes, researchers looked at the influence of a high-protein diet on glucose sugar levels.
Approximately 60 women with prediabetes participated and were assigned to a low-calorie, rapid weight loss diet or a high-protein weight loss diet. Both diets resulted in a loss of 8 to 10 percent of body weight. Essentially, most of their weight loss was loss of fatty tissue. Small Diet Changes, Big Health Benefits If you get your protein from animal sources like meat, eggs, and dairy, the first study is great news.
When you make small changes to your diet and swap out some of the animal products for plant protein, you may get a tremendous benefit in lowering your risk of death from heart disease and cancer.
These health dividends were observed when people substituted plants for animal products in just 3 percent of the diet. You may not be considering a diet change to prepare for the love of your life like my colleague, but when you look at the evidence, it seems most of us could use more plant protein in our diets.
The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and not Everyday Health.