Science at a Distance
Monomers and polymers. • The four biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids , proteins, and nucleic monomers. BIOL Spring 7. (of both nonbiological type). Monomer. Polymer . symbiotic relationships with these microbes. Mar 22, Proteins and nucleic acids are two examples of polymers. The individual smaller molecules are called monomers. When small organic. What is the relationship between a polymer and a monomer? Explain how both nucleic acids and proteins are polymers be sure to describe the monomers.
Combining the sugar monomers creates disaccharides made from two sugars or larger polymers called polysaccharides. For example, sucrose table sugar is a disaccharide that derives from adding two monomers, glucose and fructose. Other disaccharides include lactose sugar in milk and maltose a byproduct of cellulose. An enormous polysaccharide made from many monomers, starch serves as the chief storage of energy for plants, and it cannot be dissolved in water. Starch is made from a huge number of glucose molecules as its base monomer.
Starch makes up seeds, grains and many other foods that people and animals consume. The protein amylase works to revert starch back into the base monomer glucose. Glycogen is a polysaccharide used by animals for energy storage.
Glycogen differs from starch by having more branches. When cells need energy, glycogen can be broken down via hydrolysis back into glucose. Long chains of glucose monomers also make up cellulose, a linear, flexible polysaccharide found around the world as a structural component in plants.
Many animals cannot fully digest cellulose, with the exception of ruminants and termites. Another example of a polysaccharide, the more brittle macromolecule chitin, forges the shells of many animals such as insects and crustaceans. Simple sugar monomers such as glucose therefore form the basis of living organisms and yield energy for their survival.
Monomers of Fats Fats are a type of lipids, polymers that are hydrophobic water repellent. The base monomer for fats is the alcohol glycerol, which contains three carbons with hydroxyl groups combined with fatty acids. Fats yield twice as much energy as the simple sugar, glucose. For this reason fats serve as a kind of energy storage for animals. Fats with two fatty acids and one glycerol are called diacylglycerols, or phospholipids. Lipids with three fatty acid tails and one glycerol are called triacylglycerols, the fats and oils.
Fats also provide insulation for the body and the nerves within it as well as plasma membranes in cells. Monomers of Proteins An amino acid is a subunit of protein, a polymer found throughout nature.
An amino acid is therefore the monomer of protein. Proteins provide numerous functions for living organisms.
Several amino acid monomers join via peptide covalent bonds to form a protein. Two bonded amino acids make up a dipeptide.
What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Give an example using proteins.
Three amino acids joined make up a tripeptide, and four amino acids make up a tetrapeptide. With this convention, proteins with over four amino acids also bear the name polypeptides. Of these 20 amino acids, the base monomers include glucose with carboxyl and amine groups. Glucose can therefore also be called a monomer of protein. The amino acids form chains as a primary structure, and additional secondary forms occur with hydrogen bonds leading to alpha helices and beta pleated sheets.
Folding of amino acids leads to active proteins in the tertiary structure. Additional folding and bending yields stable, complex quaternary structures such as collagen.
Introduction to macromolecules
Collagen provides structural foundations for animals. The protein keratin provides animals with skin and hair and feathers.
Proteins also serve as catalysts for reactions in living organisms; these are called enzymes.Monomers and Polymers
Proteins serve as communicators and movers of material between cells. For example, the protein actin plays the role of transporter for most organisms. The varying three-dimensional structures of proteins lead to their respective functions. These giant molecules carry out all the vital functions needed by cells.
Macromolecules are involved in processes such as food digestion, information storage, energy manipulation and metabolism. They are complex, huge associations of molecular subunits that appear impossibly difficult to understand. Fortunately they are all built using the same construction principle.
Monomers and Polymers Monomers are small molecules, mostly organic, that can join with other similar molecules to form very large molecules, or polymers. All monomers have the capacity to form chemical bonds to at least two other monomer molecules.
Polymers are chains with an unspecified number of monomeric units. It was probably an accident. In he found a suspicious, sticky, white substance at the bottom of a flask in which he had been trying to decompose diazomethane. He had no idea what he had made, so he turned the analysis of the material over to Eugen Bamberger and Friedrich Tschirner, who found long chains of -CH2- which they called "polymethylene". They were trying very hard to make an explosive gas ethylene react with a much larger molecule benzaldehydeby forcing them together under high pressure.
What they got was a useless, so they thought! Cellulose is also a string of glucose molecules. Because the glucoses are joined together differently cellulose has a different shape, and therefor different properties, than starch or glycogen. The enzymes we'll learn more about these soon that are used to hydrolyze starch don't work on cellulose. Most organisms cannot digest cellulose and it passes right through them roughage.
Goats and termites don't really digest cellulose, they have bacteria that do it for them.
Chitin is an important polysaccharide used to make the exoskeletons of arthropods. Lipids Lipids are all similar in that they are at least in part hydrophobic. There are three important families of lipids: Fats Fats are large molecules made of two types of molecules, glycerol and some type of fatty acid.
The fatty acid has a long chain of carbon and hydrogen, usually referred to as the hydrocarbon tail, with a carboxyl group head. The carboxyl group is why its called an acid. Glycerol has three carbons 3. These can be the same three or different. This arrangement of three is why fats are called triglycerides. Fats may be saturated or unsaturated. This has to do with the amount of hydrogen in the tail.
Unsaturated fatty acids have some hydrogen missing, with double bonds replacing them. The double bond give the fatty acid a kink 3. Saturated fats are solid at room temperature and come from animals, unsaturated fats come from plants and are liquid at room temperature.
Fats are used as a high density energy storage in animals and in plants seeds. It may also be used in animals for insulation. Phospholipids Phospholipids are like fats but they have two fatty acids and a phosphate group joined to glycerol. The fatty acid tails are hydrophobic but the phosphate part is hydrophilic. This is an important feature of these molecules. More about phospholipids when we cover membrane structure.
Steroids Steroids are also lipids but they have a carbon skeleton of four connected rings no glycerol here 3.
The different properties of different steroids are due to the attached functional groups. Cholesterol is a steroid that can be modified to form many hormones. Proteins Proteins are extremely important.
What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Give an example using proteins. | Socratic
They are large, complex molecules that are used for structural support, storage, to transport substances, and as enzymes. They are a sophisticated, diverse group of molecules, and yet they are all polymers of just 20 amino acids. Amino acids have a carbon attached to a hydrogen, an amino group, a carboxyl group and something else R.
Its the something else that give the amino acid its characteristics 3. Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds dehydration synthesis 3. Polypeptide chains are strings of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds.