Termites and Protozoa by Karen Williams on Prezi
Termites depend upon the microbes in their gut or digestive tract to digest the These microbes belong to three groups, bacteria, archaea and protozoans. partner can live without the other, so the relationship is called an obligate symbiosis. live without each other, so they are an example of an obligate symbiosis. Symbiosis in protozoa mostly represents a close mutualistic protozoans and a multicellular organism (ruminants, lower termites, This work presents a short overview of the most common examples of symbiosis in protozoa. Termites are divided into two types, the lower termite, which possesses and symbiotic relationships between the termite and its intestinal protozoa, first.
Parasites transported by vector usually are pathogenic protozoans harmful to vertebrates, like Trypanosoma Chagas diseaseLeishmania leishmaniosis or Plasmodium Malaria.
Symbiosis in protozoa
Mosquito of the genus Anopheles, the major vector of the protozoan causing malaria worldwide: Extracellular and intracellular symbiosis Unlike gut microbes and endoparasites, extracellular and intracellular endosymbionts are vertically transmitted generation after generation; that is, the insect inherits them from its parents Extracellular endosymbionts Extracellular endosymbionts, which can be both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, can be found in different organs of the body even in the intestine along with the gut microbes.
In any case, they never penetrate inside the cells. However, some species can be found outside and inside cells. Since many extracellular microorganisms can also be intracellular, the possibility that they are found, in an evolutionary sense, in a transition stage between gut microbes and intracellular endosymbionts has been discussed.
An interesting case of extracellular endosymbiosis takes place in some species of aphids of the tribe Cerataphidini. Like Buchnera in the rest of aphids, YLS would play a key role on aphid feeding habits, participating in the production of essential nutrients.
There exist two types of intracellular endosymbionts: Mycetocyte symbionts or Blochmann bodies Bacteriocytes or mycetocytes are specialized adipose cells containing endosymbionts which can be found in some groups of insects. These cells are vertically transmitted to the offspring and gathered together forming organs known as mycetomes o bacteriomes. Blochmann bodies, or simply the endosymbionts inside mycetomes, are related to three groups of insects: Blattaria cockroachessome groups of heteropterans within Homoptera cicadas, rust flies, aphids, etc.
Buchnera aphidicola inside a mycetome of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Buchnera cells, which are round, are located packed in the citoplasm of the mycetome. MoranUniversity of Arizona CC 2.
The most well studied case is the relationship between Buchnera and aphids. This intracellular bacterium recycles the uric acid and some other nitrogenous wastes produced by the aphid in order to produce the amino acid glutamine, which is then used by this same endosymbiont to produce other essential amino acids necessary for the aphid to develop. It is also considered that Buchnera produces vitamin B2 riboflavin.
Symbiosis in protozoa - Faculty of Science Repository
It has been confirmed that Buchnera cells decrease in number when nutrients are scarce. This suggests that aphids use Buchnera cells as an alternative food source in difficult situations.
So, aphids take more advantages from this relationship than Buchnera. A whole community of microorganisms is necessary. These microbes belong to three groups, bacteriaarchaea and protozoans. Organisms that live with one another for long periods of time are said to live in symbiosis. The symbioses in the termite gut are often beneficial to both partners and so are called a mutualistic relationship.
Sometimes neither partner can live without the other, so the relationship is called an obligate symbiosis. The protozoans and the bacteria and archeae that live insided them often depend upon one another and cannot live without each other, so they are an example of an obligate symbiosis.
The bacteria and archaea that live inside their partner are also called endosymbionts"endo-" meaning "within. Bacteria and archaea are about a ten times smaller and appear as small specks in these photos.
Arxiu d'etiquetes: termite protozoa
None of these organisms have a color and are largely transparent. To photograph them without using dyes to stain them which would kill them we used a special kind of microscope that uses Nomarski optics to distinguish the microbes from the surrounding water.
This gives three-dimensional images of the microbes. Photos courtesy of Dan Gage The protozoans come in a variety of shapes and move around rapidly.
termite protozoa | All you need is Biology
These are their flagella that they use to move. They consume wood particles through the larger end of the cell. They cannot break down the wood by themselves. They harbor bacteria inside them that do this for them and some of the chemical products that those bacteria produce are used as food by. This is an example of a symbiosis or "living together". Personympha vertens or maybe Personympha minor? You be the judge.