Develop a DV outreach campaign including print, video, social media. • Develop a Child .. contest is designed to bring awareness to important issues: Drive with care-walk .. Re-established relationships with Criminal Justice. Programs. - Five Boys Basketball Teams participated in the OC SCMAF. The World Bank supports social development by listening to poor people and promoting their voices in the development process; understanding and addressing. Following the distribution of the last issue of the. City Manager Newsletter . Economic Development Services. Office: Valley . Caroline is a Hootsuite certified Social Marketing Professional years involved with both SCMAF and Kiwanis. . developing long-term, successful relationships based on.
Families that are headed by a single parent and working-class families with multiple children are most likely to be poor. Housing project in Bremen-Vahr in the s, back then most tenants living in housing-projects were two parent families with at least one parent working.
In many housing projects the composition of tenants has changed since then and now many tenant-families are headed by a single female or an unemployed male There is a discussion going on about hunger in Germany. Reverend Bernd Siggelkow, founder of the Berlin -based soup kitchen "Die Arche", claimed that a number of German children go hungry each day. He blamed the lack of jobs, low welfare payments, and parents who were drug-addicted or mentally ill. SPD politician and board member of the German central bank Thilo Sarrazin said it was possible to live on welfare without going hungry if one did not buy fast food, but was able to cook from scratch.
He was criticized by The Left politician Heidi Knake-Wernerwho said it was not right "if well paid people like us make recommendations to poor people about how they should shop". Inits national fertility rate was 1. By contrast, the United States had a fertility rate of 2.
Social issue - Wikipedia
Abuse of alcohol and drugs is common. Many people living in those neighborhoods are what is called a-people. Often those neighbourhoods were founded out of best intentions. Many districts that later became problem neighbourhoods were founded in the s and s when the State wanted to provide better housing for poorer persons. Big tenement buildings were built. The first tenants mostly were two-parent-families, not those one kind with at least one parent working and many were happy with their neighbourhoods.
Though technological inventions have increased the pace of development, the tendency to view developmental accomplishments as mainly powered by technology misses the bigger picture.
Technological innovation was spurred by general advances in the social organization of knowledge. In the Middle Agesefforts at scientific progress were few, mainly because there was no effective system to preserve and disseminate knowledge.
Since there was no organized protection for patent rights, scientists and inventors were secretive about observations and discoveries. Establishment of scientific associations and scientific journals spurred the exchange of knowledge and created a written record for posterity.
Nobel laureate economist Arthur Lewis observed that the mechanization of factory production in England—the Industrial Revolution —was a direct result of the reorganization of English agriculture. Enclosure of common lands in England generated surplus income for farmers.
That extra income generated additional raw materials for industrial processing, and produced greater demand for industrial products that traditional manufacturing processes could not meet. Factory production increased many times when production was reorganized to use steam energy, combined with moving assembly lines, specialization, and division of labor.
Thus, technological development was both a result of and a contributing factor to the overall development of society. They build on past accomplishments in an incremental manner, and give a conscious form to the unconscious knowledge that society gathers over time.
As pioneers are more conscious than the surrounding community, their inventions normally meet with initial resistance, which recedes over time as their inventions gain wider acceptance. If opposition is stronger than the pioneer, then the introduction of an invention gets delayed.
When Denis Papin demonstrated his steam engineGerman naval authorities refused to accept it, fearing it would lead to increased unemployment. John Kaywho developed a flying shuttle textile loom, was physically threatened by English weavers who feared the loss of their jobs. He fled to France where his invention was more favorably received. The widespread use of computers and application of biotechnology raises similar resistance among the public today.
Regardless of the response, technological inventions occurs as part of overall social development, not as an isolated field of activity. Humanity relied more on muscle-power than thought-power to accomplish work. That is no longer the case. Today, mental resources are the primary determinant of development. Where people drove a simple bullock cart, they now design ships and aircraft that carry huge loads across immense distances.
Humanity has tamed rivers, cleared jungles and even turned arid desert lands into cultivable lands through irrigation.
Since there is no inherent limit to the expansion of society's mental resources, the notion of limits to growth cannot be ultimately binding. All three are present in any society at time. One of them is predominant while the other two play subordinate roles. The term 'vital' denotes the emotional and nervous energies that empower society's drive towards accomplishment and express most directly in the interactions between human beings. Before the full development of mind, it is these vital energies that predominate in human personality and gradually yield the ground as the mental element becomes stronger.
The speed and circumstances of social transition from one stage to another varies. People follow tradition strictly and there is little innovation and change. Land is the main asset and productive resource during the physical stage and wealth is measured by the size of land holdings.
This is the agrarian and feudal phase of society.
Inherited wealth and position rule the roost and there is very little upward mobility. Feudal lords and military chiefs function as the leaders of the society. Commerce and money play a relatively minor role. As innovative thinking and experimental approaches are discouraged, people follow tradition unwaveringly and show little inclination to think outside of established guidelines. Occupational skills are passed down from parent to child by a long process of apprenticeship. Guilds restrict the dissemination of trade secrets and technical knowledge.
The Church controls the spread of new knowledge and tries to smother new ideas that does not agree with established dogmas. The physical stage comes to an end when the reorganization of agriculture gives scope for commerce and industry to expand.
This happened in Europe during the 18th century when political revolutions abolished feudalism and the Industrial Revolution gave a boost to factory production. The shift to the vital and mental stages helps to break the bonds of tradition and inject new dynamism in social life.
The vital activities of society expand markedly. Society becomes curious, innovative and adventurous. During the vital stage emphasis shifts from interactions with the physical environment to social interactions between people.
Trade supplants agriculture as the principal source of wealth. Equally important, society at this time began to more effectively harness the power of money. Commerce took over from agriculture, and money replaced land as the most productive resource. The center of power shifted from the aristocracy to the business class, which employed the growing power of money to gain political influence.
During the vital stage, the rule of law becomes more formal and binding, providing a secure and safe environment for business to flourish.
Banks, shipping companies and joint-stock companies increase in numbers to make use of the opportunities. Fresh innovative thinking leads to new ways of life that people accept as they prove beneficial. Science and experimental approaches begin to make a headway as the hold of tradition and dogma weaken. Demand for education rises.
People begin to aspire for luxury and leisure that was not possible when life was at a subsistence level. The practical application of mind generates many inventions. The social application of mind leads to new and more effective types of social organization. The political application leads to changes in the political systems that empower the populace to exercise political and human rights in a free and democratic manner. These changes began in the Renaissance and Enlightenment, and gained momentum in the Reformationwhich proclaimed the right of individuals to relate directly to God without the mediation of priests.
The political application of mind led to the American and French Revolutionswhich produced writing that first recognized the rights of the common man and gradually led to the actual enjoyment of these rights. Organization is a mental invention. Therefore it is not surprising that the mental stage of development is responsible for the formulation of a great number of organizational innovations. Huge business corporations have emerged that make more money than even the total earnings of some small countries.
Global networks for transportation and communication now connect the nations of the world within a common unified social fabric for sea and air travel, telecommunications, weather reporting and information exchange. In addition to spurring technological and organizational innovation, the mental phase is also marked by the increasing power of ideas to change social life. Ethical ideals have been with humanity since the dawn of civilization. But their practical application in daily social life had to wait for the mental stage of development to emerge.
The 20th century truly emerged as the century of the common man. Political, social, economic and many other rights were extended to more and more sections of humanity with each succeeding decade.
However broadly speaking, the essential features of the physical, vital and mental stages of development are strikingly similar and therefore quite recognizable even in societies separated by great distance and having little direct contact with one another.
Social development theory
Moreover, societies also learn from those who have gone through these transitions before and, therefore, may be able to make the transitions faster and better. When the Netherlands introduced primary education init was a pioneering initiative. When Japan did the same thing late in the 19th century, it had the advantage of the experience of the USA and other countries.
When many Asian countries initiated primary education in the s after winning independence, they could draw on the vast experience of more developed nations. This is a major reason for the quickening pace of progress. Natural development is the spontaneous and unconscious process of development that normally occurs.
Planned development is the result of deliberate conscious initiatives by the government to speed development through special programs and policies.
Natural development is an unconscious process, since it results from the behavior of countless individuals acting on their own—rather than conscious intention of the community.
It is also unconscious in the sense that society achieves the results without being fully conscious of how it did so. The natural development of democracy in Europe over the past few centuries can be contrasted with the conscious effort to introduce democratic forms of government in former colonial nations after World War II.
Planned development can become fully conscious only when the process of development itself is fully understood. While in planned development the government is the initiator in the natural version it is private individuals or groups that are responsible for the initiative.
Whoever initiates, the principles and policies are the same and success is assured only when the conditions and right principles are followed. Until agriculture in India did not differ markedly from what it had been during the colonial period beginning years ago.
Success was made possible by a comprehensive and well-coordinated program involving multiple changes in the way society managed the production of food. In the past, this led to periodic food shortages and famines, which were managed by huge imports from abroad. The Green Revolution was an attempt to break out of this condition and increase food production to make the country self-sufficient.
First, the government had to convince farmers to accept the hybrid varieties that would lead to increased yields. Then, they had to assure farmers that increased production would not drive down prices as bumper harvests had done in the past. The government had to ensure a supply of quality seeds, fertilizers, and provide adequate storage space. It also had to train a network of extension agents to train farmers to cultivate their fields with new methods.
It set up the Food Corporation to buy food grains from surplus production areas and distribute it in areas with shortages. It constituted an Agricultural Pricing Commission to ensure a minimum floor price to farmers so that there was no disincentive for increased production. Seed and fertilizer corporations were formed to ensure supply of good quality seeds and timely supply of fertilizers, etc. Agricultural scientists were motivated to do their work better by the offer of better pay scales and greater infrastructural facilities.
It adopted the right approaches and was alive to the needs and aspirations of the farmers. Therefore it was well received. The success of a planned initiative depends on its ability to ensure the terms and conditions that help the natural process succeed. Many planned government initiatives fail because they begin without proper understanding of the conditions necessary for their fulfillment. But today, India's private sector is perhaps even better equipped than government to bring about rapid development as illustrated by the dramatic expansion of the country's IT industry.
This was totally unexpected, and took even many experts by surprise. More than the increased food production, the elevation of agricultural operation in India to a higher level of organization was a more noteworthy achievement.