The Role of Potassium and Sodium in Your Diet | CDC
Sodium and potassium are two electrolytes that are required for human survival. Electrolytes are positively and negatively charged particles that control the. Sodium and potassium are electrolyte minerals that work in conjunction with one another to control the amount of fluid in your body, nerve. The body needs the combination of potassium and sodium to produce energy and regulate kidney function, but most people get far too much.
Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans.
This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue.
Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium.
The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension.
It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction.
Future study in these populations is warranted. Introduction High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is 1 of the most well-known major risk factors for cardiovascular disease CVD 5 and stroke 1. Given the established relation between hypertension and CVD and stroke, 2 leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, it is critical that simple yet effective interventions for reducing blood pressure be identified. Potentially relevant indicators of CVD and stroke risk also include the renin-angiotensin system 34arterial stiffness 5 and the augmentation index 6and endothelial dysfunction 7.
Blood Pressure : Why potassium helps to lower blood pressure
Dietary interventions, in particular those based on sodium or potassium intakes, have demonstrated their ability to reduce blood pressure in humans.
Two recently published meta-analyses reported that lower sodium intake resulted in lower levels of blood pressure 910whereas a third meta-analysis reported that higher potassium consumption was associated with a reduction in blood pressure in hypertensive populations only Several mechanisms exist by which sodium and potassium can influence blood pressure, and evidence indicates that the interaction between these nutrients plays a dominant role in the development of primary hypertension Specifically, diets characteristic of the modern Western diet—which is high in sodium and low in potassium—produce a biologic interaction with the kidneys, resulting in excessive sodium and insufficient potassium concentrations in the human body; these biologic changes result in vascular smooth muscle cell contraction, followed by an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and higher blood pressure, and finally hypertension The influence of sodium or potassium intake on the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains under study 12 The joint effects of low sodium and high potassium intakes on blood pressure, hypertension, and related factors may be larger than the effects of either sodium or potassium alone 8 Up to the present date, no known systematic review has been undertaken to determine if the sodium-to-potassium ratio is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related risk factors for CVD than either sodium or potassium alone.
The goal of this review was to systematically evaluate and synthesize RCTs and observational research on this issue, to identify the current research gaps, and to make research recommendations on the basis of the published data regarding the evaluation of these determinants for blood pressure and related factors.
A literature search was performed in PubMed for publications through 21 August Citations were limited to those published in English; no other search limits were implemented.
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University and all participants provided written informed consent. Data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire including age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity and medical history. Current smoking was defined as at least one cigarette per day in the past year.
Alcohol consumption was defined as drinking more than three times a week. Physical activity was categorized as no activity, occasional activity exercise sessions a week lasting on average 30 min per session and regular activity exercise more than 3 sessions a week lasting on average 30 min per session. Physical examinations included measurements of height, weight and blood pressure. The mean value of three consecutive readings an interval of 30 s was used both at the baseline and the follow-up surveys.
- Relationship and interaction between sodium and potassium.
- The Relationships Between Salt & Potassium
- Potassium and sodium out of balance
Normal blood pressure was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure of — mmHg and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 80—84 mmHg. Pre-hypertension was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure of — mmHg and a mean diastolic blood pressure of 85—89 mmHg.
The new-onset hypertension was defined as normotensive at baseline examination and progressed to hypertension in the follow-up survey. Body mass index BMI was calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters. The eGFR was calculated according to the modification of diet in renal disease. Overnight fasting venous blood samples were collected for the measurements of serum glucose, blood lipid, albumin, creatinine, insulin and electrolyte concentrations.
Serum potassium and sodium levels were measured by the ion-selective electrode method. High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were measured by homogeneous assay. Fasting insulin was measured using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay and albumin level was measured by the bromocresol green method.
Statistical analysis With the actual sample size ofhypertension incidence of For comparison, serum potassium level was classified into five groups according to 0. The incidence of hypertension was calculated according to baseline serum potassium and sodium levels, classified as above.
Does Sodium Affect Potassium?
Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between baseline serum potassium and sodium levels and risk of incident hypertension. The multivariate model was adjusted for factors that may affect blood pressure or serum potassium and sodium including age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein HDL-Clow-density lipoprotein LDL-Cinsulin, albumin, eGFR, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of hypertension, and levels of serum calcium and magnesium ions.
Potential increased risk for hypertension with higher or lower serum potassium and sodium levels was further assessed by combining the second, third and fourth groups as reference groups. We tested for interactions between serum potassium and sodium and sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, and physical activity by including the interaction terms in the logistic models.
Results A total of participants were included in the analysis, including men