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SYMBIOSIS. There are three types of symbiotic relationships. At least one organism will benefit in all types of symbiosis. Parasitism. Mutualism; Commensalism. Parasitism. When a species or organism (parasite or host) benefits from the relationship at the expense of the other party (host). Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit. An example of mutualism involves goby fish and shrimp (see Figure below).
Symbiosis - Wikipedia
It derives from a medieval Latin word meaning sharing food, formed from com- with and mensa table. Examples of metabiosis are hermit crabs using gastropod shells to protect their bodies, and spiders building their webs on plants.
Parasitism Head scolex of tapeworm Taenia solium is adapted to parasitism with hooks and suckers to attach to its host. In a parasitic relationshipthe parasite benefits while the host is harmed. Parasitism is an extremely successful mode of life; as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles, and it is also frequent in plants and fungi. Moreover, almost all free-living animal species are hosts to parasites, often of more than one species.
Mimicry Mimicry is a form of symbiosis in which a species adopts distinct characteristics of another species to alter its relationship dynamic with the species being mimicked, to its own advantage.
Batesian mimicry is an exploitative three-party interaction where one species, the mimic, has evolved to mimic another, the model, to deceive a third, the dupe. In terms of signalling theorythe mimic and model have evolved to send a signal; the dupe has evolved to receive it from the model.
This is to the advantage of the mimic but to the detriment of both the model, whose protective signals are effectively weakened, and of the dupe, which is deprived of an edible prey. For example, a wasp is a strongly-defended model, which signals with its conspicuous black and yellow coloration that it is an unprofitable prey to predators such as birds which hunt by sight; many hoverflies are Batesian mimics of wasps, and any bird that avoids these hoverflies is a dupe.
Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other. The food debris that accumulates between their teeth can cause infections and severe health issues, so they allow plovers to feed on this lodged food. Nile crocodile and Egyptian plover.
Instead of having a dorsal fin, remoras have developed a powerful sucker that adheres to the body of sharks, from which they obtain food and protection.
This allows sharks to get rid of certain parasites that live on their skin, but they get a lot less out of this relationship than remoras do. Photo by Fiona Ayerst Shutterstock. These are cool, shady places that are often raided by foxes and other predators. Fat-tailed scorpions like to be in the shade and offer the lizards protection from predators in exchange for living with them in their dens. Spiny-tailed lizard and scorpion. Mix of photos by Kristian Bell and Mr.Symbiotic Relationships-Definition and Examples-Mutualism,Commensalism,Parasitism
Shrimp keep their dens clean and in perfect condition, and they share them with goby fish for protection. Goby fish and shrimp. Photo by zaferkizilkaya Shutterstock.
Symbiosis in the animal kingdom. Mutualism, commensalism and parasitism
These small amphibians keep tarantula eggs pest and insect-free, in exchange for their protection and for shelter. Snails and green-banded broodsacs That of green-banded broodsacs is one of the most shocking examples of parasitism in the animal kingdom. The thick antennae develop an eye-catching colour and make a pulsating movement to attract birds.
The eggs will then infect other snails, as they feed, amongst other things, on bird feces. This wasp introduces its eggs in the body of a butterfly caterpillar. Then, they exit its body by making a hole through its skin. Once outside, they form a cocoon to undergo metamorphosis. The wasp previously introduced part of its DNA in the caterpillar, forcing it to follow its commands. The caterpillar will remain by the larvae until they complete their metamorphosis, even using its silk to protect them.