Who Likes Whom in The Middle East? Key players & Notable relationships — Information is Beautiful
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey ( both Asian and . The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States .. "Middle East – Articles by Region" – Council on Foreign Relations: "A since "The leading information source on business in the Middle East". Therefore, in order to understand US foreign affairs with the Middle East, we need background information on each of the countries. Before it looks at US policy. President Bush's review of U.S. Iraq policy may involve adjustments to broader U.S. strategy in the Mideast. Bush is hearing proposals ranging from a boost in.
Middle East - Wikipedia
Due to relative power considerations, all other battleships were rendered obsolete and so with one swift move, oil became a crucial, yet external resource. Iraq[ edit ] The origin of American economic involvement in the Middle East, particularly with regards to oil, dates back to with the signing of the Red Line Agreement.
This was preceded by the founding of the Turkish Petroleum Company, which was created with the intention of exploring and extracting oil within the Ottoman Empire. Eventually, after the discovery of a large oil field in Iraq inthe issue of distribution arose. Each of the large powers — France, the United Kingdom, and the United States — worried about being edged out by the other two. The more important provision of the Red Line Agreement was that none of the four parties could develop any oilfields from the Suez Canal to the Iran, with the exception of Kuwait the area that the TPC had jurisdiction overunless that party gained support and approval from the other three.
However, WWII left the UK weakened and unable to retain its dominance in the region, and as such the Truman and Roosevelt administrations were able to achieve their top priority, monopolizing oil in the region.
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InBritain received more profits from oil production in Iran than Iran did. The United States therefore feared that this unbalanced relationship would push the Iranians towards the Soviets in what would be a great loss in the perpetual Cold War struggle as well as the elimination of access to Iranian oil.
Thus, the United States became much more directly involved in Iranian affairs and oil.
Lost in the Middle East
In this ill-defined moment, Americans are unsure of what they want and what is important to them, but they are nevertheless obliged to make consequential decisions. The evolution of the Syrian conflict from peaceful uprising to civil war to regional proxy war with jihadis and great powers in between has produced a staggering level of complexity that has even made it hard to ascertain who is fighting whom, on whose behalf, and why.
The coldbloodedness of Assad, his family, their courtiers in Damascus, and their enablers in Tehran and Moscow is squarely to blame for this mass murder and suffering. The sins of the West are manifold, too — most of them borne of wishful thinking, exhaustion, stupidity, or some combination of all three.
Why else would many of the same people underestimate the Iranian and Russian commitment to the Assad regime? There are many more questions that one can ask about the last seven years, but there is no point in relitigating them yet again because the state of the debate remains almost exactly where it was individed between those who advocate direct U.
In seven years, I have argued in favor of both positions. The result, beyond the fight against the Islamic State, is a muddle.
Lost in the Middle East – Foreign Policy
The strike on April 13 was paradigmatic of this problem. This kind of incoherence is not unique to Syria, however. The problem plagues U.
These issues and countries represent difficult challenges; Americans do not know what they want in any of them; and neither the current president nor his predecessor ever defined what should be important to the United States in the region.
There is something inherently challenging in defining national interests. When analysts try, their definitions tend to get caught up in circular reasoning: Because it did X. If one were to survey the post-World War II era through the turn of the century, the interests of the United States become clear through its actions — what Americans and their leaders were willing to spend resources on, make sacrifices for, and defend.
A short list emerges: Although these policies have dominated U. Counterterrorism remains an emotive issue, but now that the United States is set to become the largest producer of oil in the world, the commitment to Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf may no longer seem as urgent or worthwhile. Israel remains popular among Americans but over time has become a partisan issue, raising questions about the importance of Israeli security to an apparently large number of Americans who vote for the Democratic Party.
And it seems that Americans and their leaders are no longer willing to shoulder the burden of being the dominant power in the Middle East.