Iraq Asks Turkey To Release More River Water
The ancient town of Hasankeyf sits on the bank of the Tigris River. The Ilısu Dam will cause the river to rise some feet, submerging this modern café, the ruins the country's founder, the dam was built on the Euphrates River in the s as part The dam—the Ilısu—is now almost complete, and the flooding could start. A list of species for the Euphrates–Tigris Basin is also included. The expert meeting on the review of fisheries and aquaculture activities in the Euphrates– Tigris Basin was the Group photo and coffee break Both the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers begin in an area that is considered semi-humid and flow towards. The Euphrates River in Hindiya, Iraq Farmers faced with the start of the planting season between the Tigris and Euphrates south of Baghdad.
Lions were last sighted along the Tigris in Foxes, wolves, and gazelles are common in the alluvial plain, and some of those animals range as far north as central Anatolia. Wild pigs foreground and traditional housing background in the marshland between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, southern Iraq. There are several kinds of viper and a small cobra, as well as a variety of nonvenomous snakes.
Lizards can reach lengths of nearly 2 feet 0. Frogs, toads, and turtles abound in the rivers and marshes. Members of the carp family are the dominant freshwater fish of the Tigris-Euphrates system.
Barbels weighing as much as pounds kg have been recorded. There are several varieties of catfish, as well as spiny eels. The Tigris River flowing through Baghdad. The way of life varies from the nomadism of the small remaining numbers of desert Bedouin to the settled condition of the villagers fellahin in the agricultural districts. The traditional pattern of village life among the fellahin in Iraq suffered severe disruptions, from both general societal forces and protracted warfare, during the second half of the 20th century.
For centuries, the plains of northern Iraq furnished winter pasture for Kurdish and Arab tribes. In the early 17th century, the Ottoman sultan Murad IV settled Turkmen in the region in an effort to secure his communications with Baghdad. The majority of Kurds receded into the Assyrian plain and the mountains of northern Iraq, western Iran, and eastern Anatolia.
The Kurds now comprise settled, seminomadic, and fully nomadic groups, often with members of the same tribe carrying on each of the subsistence strategies. Both rivers in their upper courses run through areas that are predominantly Kurdish. Economy The economic life of the Tigris-Euphrates basin continues to depend heavily on the waters of the rivers, even though oil revenues have also played a dominant role in Iraq.
Modern water-control technology has reduced the devastating effects of the flood-and-drought cycle, but at a cost of desiccated marshlands and decreased natural replenishment of soil nutrients. The rivers have two flood periods: The sheer volume of floodwater endangers the bunds embankments within which the rivers are confined in their lower courses. The primary requirement of river control, therefore, is to maintain an effective system of diversion and storage, both as a precaution against the kind of inundation that threatened Baghdad as recently as and as a means of retaining the floodwaters for distribution in the hot season.
Euphrates - Wikipedia
Agriculture and irrigation The rivers are high at the wrong time of year for most crops except riceso that cultivation by direct inundation generally cannot be practiced. The initiation of massive irrigation projects in Turkey heralds unprecedented change for the piedmont area of southeastern Anatolia.
Historically, the agriculture of that zone, as well as of northern Iraq and Syria, had depended entirely on rainfall. Some minor irrigation by means of mechanical lifts long has been practiced in northern Syria, where vines, olives, tobacco, fruits, and grains have been the mainstays. In Iraq the major field crops are wheat, barley, millet, rice, corn maizeand sorghum.
Date palms have been prized in Mesopotamia since ancient times. Modern palm groves are often interspersed with other fruit trees and vegetable gardens. On some parts of the Tigris the diameter of traditional wheel lifts can exceed 50 feet 15 metres. The number of pumps available for use by individual farmers has increased dramatically.
There are three kinds of canals: The principal canal systems are the following: While intensive irrigation has supported Mesopotamian agriculture for thousands of years, it has caused—in combination with poor drainage—the progressive destruction of the soil through salinization.
Tigris–Euphrates river system - Wikipedia
Irrigation water from the rivers, itself slightly saline, activates mineral residues in the soil, which rise to the surface through evaporation.
A simple, traditional method—alternate-year fallowing—can halt or at least retard the deterioration. One study of Sumerian records from the 3rd millennium bce has suggested that an understanding of the salinization process led to a shift from wheat to the more salt-resistant barley.
This steppe is characterised by white wormwood Artemisia herba-alba and Chenopodiaceae. Throughout history, this zone has been heavily overgrazed due to the practicing of sheep and goat pastoralism by its inhabitants. This zone supports either no vegetation at all or small pockets of Chenopodiaceae or Poa sinaica. Although today nothing of it survives due to human interference, research suggests that the Euphrates Valley would have supported a riverine forest.
Species characteristic of this type of forest include the Oriental planethe Euphrates poplarthe tamariskthe ash and various wetland plants.
Species like gazelleonager and the now-extinct Arabian ostrich lived in the steppe bordering the Euphrates valley, while the valley itself was home to the wild boar.
Tigris-Euphrates river system
Carnivorous species include the gray wolfthe golden jackalthe red foxthe leopard and the lion. The Syrian brown bear can be found in the mountains of Southeast Turkey. The presence of European beaver has been attested in the bone assemblage of the prehistoric site of Abu Hureyra in Syria, but the beaver has never been sighted in historical times.
Dams in IraqTabqa Damand Southeastern Anatolia Project Map in French showing the locations of dams and barrages built in the Syro — Turkish part of the Euphrates basin The Hindiya Barrage on the Iraqi Euphrates, based on plans by British civil engineer William Willcocks and finished inwas the first modern water diversion structure built in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Fatih Yildiz, Ankara's ambassador in Baghdad, said the decision had been taken by Erdogan himself.
But hydrologists point out this was in many ways an empty gesture; in the summer months, when the announcement was made, there is little water available for filling. Iraqi farmers are giving up hope Turkey is only likely to start its operations at Ilisu following the snow melt in the headwaters of the Tigris in springtime in the early months of the year.
Not all blame for the Iraqi drought and the catastrophically low levels of water in the Tigris can be attributed to the Ilisu dam. Iran has also been building a number of dams on tributaries which flow into the Tigris, diverting water for its own agricultural schemes.
Iraq is particularly concerned about the construction in Iran of the large-scale Daryan dam. Iraq has been in a state of war or under crippling economic sanctions for much of the last 30 years.
It is still recovering after seeing about a third of its territory, including the Mosul dam, overrun in by Islamic State group militants, who have been in retreat since last year but continue to pose a threat to security. Much of its infrastructure, including water systems, has been destroyed. Corruption and chronic mismanagement have also contributed to water shortages.
Tigris–Euphrates river system
Climate change could make dams redundant In the background is the prospect of climate change, with the whole region facing into a future in which temperatures are likely to climb and rainfall decrease, leading to further declines in river levels.
Iraq is considered to be the most vulnerable country in the Middle East to climate change. How climate change is ravaging the Middle East Already much of the south of the country is drying out, including the famed marshes around Basrahome to a unique civilisation and a UNESCO world heritage site.