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Fairhair ruled with a strong hand and according to the sagas, many Norwegians left the country to live in Iceland, the Faroe IslandsGreenlandand parts of Britain and Ireland.
One of the most important sources for the history of the 11th century Vikings is the treaty between the Icelanders and Olaf Haraldsson, king of Norway circa to Haakon the Good was Norway's first Christian king, in the midth century, though his attempt to introduce the religion was rejected.
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Born sometime in between —, Olav Tryggvasson set off raiding in England with ships. He attacked London during this raiding. Arriving back in Norway inOlav landed in Moster.
There he built a church which became the first Christian church ever built in Norway. However, the administration of government took on a very conservative feudal character. The Hanseatic League forced the royalty to cede to them greater and greater concessions over foreign trade and the economy. The League had this hold over the royalty because of the loans the Hansa had made to the royalty and the large debt the kings were carrying.
The League's monopolistic control over the economy of Norway put pressure on all classes, especially the peasantry, to the degree that no real burgher class existed in Norway.
Greater Norway and Civil war era in Norway Norwegian Kingdom at its greatest extent, 13th century From the s tothe country was at peace. For periods there could be peace, before a lesser son allied himself with a chieftain and started a new conflict.
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The Archdiocese of Nidaros was created in and attempted to control the appointment of kings. While in the Viking Age all farmers owned their own land, byseventy percent of the land was owned by the king, the church, or the aristocracy. This was a gradual process which took place because of farmers borrowing money in poor times and not being able to repay. However, tenants always remained free men and the large distances and often scattered ownership meant that they enjoyed much more freedom than continental serfs.
However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanakuin Western Bolivia. The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village.
According to early estimates,[ when? Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru, Bolivia, and Chile.
Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agreements which made the other cultures rather dependentand instituting state cults.
Isbell states "Tiahuanaco underwent a dramatic transformation between AD and that established new monumental standards for civic architecture and greatly increased the resident population. Archaeologists note a dramatic adoption of Tiwanaku ceramics into the cultures which became part of the Tiwanaku empire.
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Tiwanaku's power was further solidified through the trade it implemented among the cities within its empire. Further, this elite's control of llama herds became a powerful control mechanism as llamas were essential for carrying goods between the civic centre and the periphery.
These herds also came to symbolize class distinctions between the commoners and the elites. Through this control and manipulation of surplus resources, the elite's power continued to grow until about AD As the rainfall decreased, many of the cities farther away from Lake Titicaca began to tender fewer foodstuffs to the elites. As the surplus of food decreased, and thus the amount available to underpin their power, the control of the elites began to falter.
The capital city became the last place viable for food production due to the resiliency of the raised field method of agriculture.
Tiwanaku disappeared around AD because food production, the main source of the elites' power, dried up. The area remained uninhabited for centuries thereafter. It gained control over much of what is now Andean Bolivia and extended its control into the fringes of the Amazon basin.
Colonial period[ edit ] The Spanish conquest of the Inca empire began inand was mostly completed by The territory now called Bolivia was known as Charcas, and was under the authority of the Viceroy of Lima. Independence and subsequent wars[ edit ] Main article: History of Bolivia — The struggle for independence started in the city of Sucre on 25 May and the Chuquisaca Revolution Chuquisaca was then the name of the city is known as the first cry of Freedom in Latin America.
That revolution was followed by the La Paz revolution on 16 July The La Paz revolution marked a complete split with the Spanish government, while the Chuquisaca Revolution established a local independent junta in the name of the Spanish King deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Both revolutions were short-lived and defeated by the Spanish authorities in the Viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata, but the following year the Spanish American wars of independence raged across the continent. Bolivia was captured and recaptured many times during the war by the royalists and patriots.
Buenos Aires sent three military campaigns, all of which were defeated, and eventually limited itself to protecting the national borders at Salta. After 16 years of war the Republic was proclaimed on 6 August
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