Curriculum & Instruction (CA Dept of Education)
Curriculum and instruction are the meat of the educational process. . Colorado defines its model content standards as setting "high expectations in these . The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) recognizes its importance by. a key contextual legislation and national guidance curriculum which meets the needs of all children and young people from , ensuring a focus . experiences that contribute to their learning, rather than detailed definitions of content or. All state schools are also required to make provision for a daily act of collective . should be taught the meaning of instruction verbs that they may meet in.
Research has indicated further that effective employment preparation programs for students with disabilities include: Students with disabilities may find their employability affected by another issue above and beyond the actual skills that they have achieved—namely, whether they have received a high school diploma.
States take various approaches to awarding high school diplomas or other school completion credentials to students with disabilities who do not meet traditional criteria. Some students, for example, receive a nonstandard diploma or certificate of attendance see Chapter 3.
This issue of credentialing is likely to assume greater importance in a climate of standards-based reform because some states are linking receipt of a diploma to attainment of state content and performance standards. Some students with disabilities who do not reach state standards, and thus do not meet high school diploma criteria, may find themselves disadvantaged in the job market regardless of the educational outcomes they can demonstrate Box In sum, special education has long valued educational outcomes that are broader than the academically oriented outcomes exemplified in state content standards developed thus far.
The emphasis on post-school outcomes has shaped the curricular and instructional experiences of many students with disabilities.
Characteristics of Effective Special Education Instruction Research provides a great deal of information about what constitutes an effective instructional environment for students with disabilities. We discuss three broad characteristics of effective instruction, each supported by research as important for enhancing learning among many students with disabilities: Since a high school diploma is the minimum requirement for a variety of employment opportunities, some educators are concerned about the impact standards-based reform could have on the high school credentialing process for a number of students, including some with disabilities.
Over the last several decades, as the proportion of high school students receiving a high school diploma has increased, not having a diploma is regarded as damning to one's job prospects.
At the same time, having a diploma has seemed, for some time now, to be only minimally impressive to employers Bishop, ; Hawkins, ; Pedulla and Reidy, Some argue that there is no substantive relationship between academic content and the awarding of a high school diploma Bishop,; Sedlak et al.
They see the move to ratchet up standards required for a diploma as an attempt "to hold schools to standards that the lay public could easily measure and understand" Sedlak et al. Raising standards in a credible way is thus a response to employer concerns about the devaluing of a diploma, as well as to more general concerns about U. Some students with disabilities in certain states receive differentiated diplomas, which distinguish students following a rigorous academic track from those following a minimally academic or vocational track.
The latter group receives certificates of attendance or other nonacademic diplomas see Chapter 3. Thus, students with disabilities operate in a credentialing universe much more complex than their general education counterparts. Potential employers may face difficulty in putting an applicant's credential in the appropriate context, given the diversity in the credentialing of students with disabilities. This diversity makes it that much harder for students with disabilities to showcase their achievements and abilities.
A number of issues about credentialing for students with disabilities warrant attention. First, if standards for a high school diploma are increased, more students—including those with disabilities—may not receive diplomas and, more to the point, they will not easily be able to convey to potential employers what they have achieved in high school.
Some students, including some with disabilities, who currently receive certificates of attendance face this problem. All students—whether they currently would receive a diploma, certificate of attendance, or no certification whatsoever—deserve to leave high school able to signal credibly Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: In the medium to long run, job requirements will presumably adjust to the new standards, although what form of readily ascertainable certification will replace the high school diploma is unclear.
Second, as one changes the nature of the credentialing process, whether by increasing standards or by requiring minimum competency tests, students must first be adequately prepared to meet the challenges posed by the new credentialing process. In other words, the K curriculum ought to provide students with opportunities to learn the material required for the credential.
This concept has proved controversial and subject to litigation Debra P. The issue is further complicated by the laws requiring accommodations for students with disabilities. Phillips and Vitello discuss issues relevant to this debate in more detail. Third, it is important to recognize that employers are constantly looking for ways to lower costs. To the extent that the credentialing system makes it more, rather than less, costly for business to evaluate the capabilities of students with disabilities, the system makes the transition to employment harder.
The importance of providing clear and credible evidence of what students have achieved and are capable of should not be underestimated. Bishop sees students having the opportunity to signal higher achievement to potential employers as providing an important incentive.What is CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK? What does CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK mean? CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK meaning
Michigan, New York, and Tennessee have honors diplomas to acknowledge those whose achievements sufficiently surpass the basic requirements Bond et al. In considering the three characteristics of effective instruction, it is important to note six assumptions. These characteristics apply to the large subset of students whose disabilities involve cognitive rather than physical or sensory impairments. We considered only students with cognitive disabilities because they represent the majority of students identified as having a disability.
Among individuals with cognitive disabilities, the characteristics apply to the entire range of students, from those with mild to those with severe disabilities.
These characteristics represent broad principles that, in light of the heterogeneity of the population of students with cognitive disabilities, must be particularized to meet individual student needs.
Research on these characteristics is limited to how student acquire and use a range of relatively basic or middle-order skills, from functional personal management skills, to the achievement of literacy and numeracy, to the extraction of conceptual themes or "big ideas" Carnine and Kameenui, Research has not been conducted to determine the extent to which these characteristics apply when students with cognitive disabilities learn content that requires high levels of abstraction or creativity.
Although research on positive educational interventions supports the effectiveness of these characteristics and demonstrates that they can be applied in actual school settings, a gap exists between what is known about effective special education instruction and the typical state of practice. The characteristics we describe may apply, to varying extents, to students with and without disabilities alike. At critical junctures, the teacher may determine whether reteaching is necessary for the entire class by assessing learning among a steering group of children who perform near the middle of the class Clark and Elmore, Instructional adaptation to address individual learning problems, however, occurs rarely in the regular classroom and in minor ways Baker and Zigmond, ; Kagan and Tippins, ; McIntosh et al.
By contrast, effective practice in special education, as measured by teacher decision making about instructional modifications and student achievement in reading, math, and spelling, centers instructional decision making on the individual student Fuchs and Fuchs, Research has specified methods for tracking student progress and for using the resulting database to formulate ambitious learning goals Fuchs et al.
Over time, the special educator empirically tests and develops an instructional 3 Many low-achieving students do well with general classroom instruction that incorporates some elements of these principles. However, for many students with disabilities, the level or intensity of application that is necessary may exceed what can reasonably be provided through general education programming. This process is called individually referenced decision making. Individually referenced decision making is perhaps the signature feature of effective special education practice, exemplifying a basic value and representing a core assumption of special educators' professional preparation.
Individually referenced decision making requires teachers to reserve judgment about the efficacy of an instructional method for a student until the method proves effective for that individual and fosters high expectations of learning.
It requires teachers to plan and make ongoing, major adjustments and revisions in response to an individual student's learning, and it requires knowledge of multiple ways to adapt curricula, modify instructional methods, and motivate students. Corroborating evidence documents how individually referenced decision making enhances learning for students with cognitive disabilities. A meta-analysis of a number of studies summarized the efficacy of individually referenced decision making for students with cognitive disabilities with an effect size of.
More recent studies in reading, spelling, and mathematics corroborate earlier evidence of positive effects Fuchs et al. Stecker in pressfor example, sought to assess whether individually referenced decision making had benefits over and beyond the effects of less individualized methods for regularly revising instruction and routinely measuring student performance. Pairs of students with cognitive disabilities were matched. The performance of one randomly selected student in each pair was measured twice weekly, and the teacher formulated instructional decisions for both students in the pair based on the one student's assessment results.
Moreover, half the matched students were also measured, but teachers had no access to their assessment profiles. Results showed that students whose instructional decisions were tailored to their own ongoing assessment results achieved consistently better than the other of their matched pais, and that measurement alone contributed little to student achievement.
Intensive Instruction Intensive instruction refers to a broad set of instructional features that includes, but is not limited to, a high rates of active responding at appropriate levels, b careful matching of instruction with students' skill levels, c instructional cues, prompts, and fading to support approximations to correct responding, and d detailed, task-focused feedback—all features that may be incorporated into group lessons see the work of Wolery and colleagues, e.
Meta-analyses and narrative syntheses Cohen et al. Torgesenfor example, has studied students with phonological processing deficits, who had been predicted to experience serious problems in learning to read.
Curriculum Frameworks & Instructional Materials - Curriculum Resources (CA Dept of Education)
Children were assigned randomly to four conditions: Preliminary results of this longitudinal study indicate that children in all three intensive instruction treatments had comparable achievement, significantly better than the control group. Just as for students with mild disabilities, research indicates that one-to-one intensive instruction helps develop the skills of students with more severe cognitive disabilities, particularly in the area of personal management, including dressing, personal hygiene, money management, and sexual behavior Billingsley et al.
Researchers have demonstrated that teaching these skills in group settings often dilutes the intensity of the instruction and proves unsuccessful in terms of both acquiring and generalizing the skills e.
It is important to note that, although one-to-one tutoring may be necessary to achieve instructional intensity and promote learning within certain domains of functioning, such as reading acquisition and personal management, intensive instruction is not synonymous with one-to-one delivery.
In fact, meaningful participation by students with cognitive disabilities among normal, age-appropriate peer groups for instructional activities can be critical for promoting social development and communicative competence Haring and Ryndak, ; Nietupski and Hamre-Nietupski, ; Snell and Brown, As noted by Billingsley et al. For example, in order to learn to read, many children with cognitive disabilities require explicit, structured instruction Stanovich, Similarly, without explicit instruction, the language development of many children with cognitive disabilities suffers Warren and Yoder, Parallel findings occur in other areas see Harris and Graham, As noted above, constructivism is an important philosophical influence in the current education reform movement.
Three assumptions of constructivism are particularly relevant to this discussion of effective special education. Second, constructivism holds that segmenting the curriculum into a hierarchy of discrete skills runs counter to how children learn Harris and Graham, Third, in constructivism, success in basic skills is not necessarily a prerequisite to more advanced learning and higher-order thinking Means and Knapp, As noted above, these assumptions are reflected in major general education reform initiatives and many content standards.
But they contrast with special education practice that has maintained a strong focus on the explicit teaching of basic skills. Indeed, three empirical literatures question the tenability of constructivist principles for many students with disabilities. First, the assumption that the appropriate role of the teacher is that of guide rather than provider of explicit instruction appears tenuous in light of research showing that many children with cognitive disabilities cannot be viewed as active, self-regulated learners.
Studies demonstrate that students with persistent histories of learning failure experience negative feedback that interferes with their motivation, making them more likely to suffer the phenomenon of learned helplessness Deci and Ryan,; Garber and Seligman, These experiences can result in behavioral patterns characterized by challenge avoidance and low persistence, which necessitate more structured, teacher-directed approaches to learning Dweck and Leggett, The second tenet of constructivism that appears somewhat problematic for students with cognitive disabilities is the assumption that cognitive components should not be isolated or fractionated and that the curriculum should not be taught as a series of discrete skills.
Research indicates that analyzing and teaching tasks in their component parts is effective and often necessary for many students with cognitive disabilities. The primary problem characterizing children with reading disabilities, for example, is a phonological processing deficit that impedes word learning and word recognition Adams and Bruck, ; Gough and Tunmer, ; Perfetti, ; Siegel, ; Stanovich, ; Vellutino and Scanlon, To overcome this deficit, these students require explicit instruction in recognizing discrete speech-sound segments and recognizing words Stanovich, Analogous research suggests the efficacy of related approaches that analyze and teach reading comprehension and written expression by teaching skills as components Harris and Pressley, Third, the assumption that mastery of basic skills is not a prerequisite for advanced learning appears tenuous for many students with cognitive disabilities.
For many of them, there does appear to be a hierarchy of learning, whereby students do better if they first learn number concepts and then learn to apply them. When these students fail to acquire early mathematics proficiency, they do not succeed in an academic track which requires high-order, problem-solving applications of earlier math content or a basic track which requires applications to Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The failure to learn to read undoubtedly puts individuals at risk for poor outcomes in the middle and high school curricula, for which reading proficiency is assumed and required.
Despite some questions about the pertinence of constructivist assumptions to programs for some students with cognitive disabilities, constructivist philosophy nevertheless has influenced concepts of effective special education practice in substantial ways. The notion of isolated skills instruction has been replaced with more contextualized presentations, in which strategies for applying skills in generalized contexts are taught explicitly.
Research documents the potential value of situating explicit skills instruction within structured, motivating, and authentic contexts to help students learn how to apply knowledge.
For example, Cunningham experimented with two approaches to help students develop phonemic awareness i. Phonemic awareness was chosen because there is a large body of research demonstrating its importance in helping students learn early word decoding skills e. To teach phonemic awareness, the experiment contrasted a conventional ''skill-and-drill" approach, whereby students learn skills through drill and practice but not in an explicit context, with a "metalevel" approach, which teaches skills through learning experiences situated within particular contexts.
In this latter approach, students were taught to reflect on the usefulness of phonemic awareness and were taught how to integrate the skill with other strategies. They explicitly discussed the goals and purposes of the training, observed teachers modeling the skill in hypothetical reading contexts, and had routine opportunities to apply the skill under the teacher's direction. Cunningham found that first graders in the metalevel phonemic awareness group displayed greater reading comprehension growth than their peers in the skill-and-drill treatment.
Consequently, for many students with cognitive disabilities, data-based arguments support a situated approach to teaching, which blends explicit teaching of skills with contextually rich learning experiences, a position that echoes important principles of constructivism.
Curriculum Framework Documents
Nevertheless, it is clear that explicit teaching is fundamental even within this situated teaching approach: The focus on situated context and explicit teaching for transfer is illustrated in the criterion of ultimate functioning, which, as noted earlier in this chapter, is a strategy commonly used to establish and teach valued outcomes for students with severe disabilities.
Applying explicit, intensive instruction in a contextualized setting results in more meaningful participation and performance in normal, age-based routines for children with severe disabilities Nietupski and Hamre-Nietupski, ; Snell and Brown, and helps them develop general social Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Together, these three broad characteristics of effective special education instruction—individually referenced decision making, intensive instruction, and explicit contextualization of skills-based instruction—represent a potent set of practices, which have been demonstrated to enhance the learning for students with cognitive disabilities.
Research on specific interventions that applied these three characteristics to teach students with cognitive disabilities documented positive effects ranging from.
- Curriculum & Instruction
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Curriculum Frameworks & Instructional Materials
We note that these three instructional characteristics represent practices that often differ from those of general education. Inclusion Setting suitable challenges 4. They should plan stretching work for pupils whose attainment is significantly above the expected standard. They have an even greater obligation to plan lessons for pupils who have low levels of prior attainment or come from disadvantaged backgrounds. Teachers should use appropriate assessment to set targets which are deliberately ambitious.
Age is a protected characteristic under the Equality Act but it is not applicable to schools in relation to education or as far as relating to those under the age of 18 the provision of services; it is a relevant protected characteristic in relation to the provision of services or employment so when thinking about staff. Marriage and civil partnership are also a protected characteristic but only in relation to employment.
National curriculum in England: framework for key stages 1 to 4
Lessons should be planned to ensure that there are no barriers to every pupil achieving. In many cases, such planning will mean that these pupils will be able to study the full national curriculum. The special educational needs and disability code of practice includes advice on approaches to identification of need which can support this. A minority of pupils will need access to specialist equipment and different approaches.
The SEN and disability code of practice is clear about what should be done to meet their needs. Teachers must plan lessons so that these pupils can study every national curriculum subject. Potential areas of difficulty should be identified and addressed at the outset of work. Teachers should plan teaching opportunities to help pupils develop their English and should aim to provide the support pupils need to take part in all subjects. Numeracy and mathematics 5. Confidence in numeracy and other mathematical skills is a precondition of success across the national curriculum.
Pupils should be taught to apply arithmetic fluently to problems, understand and use measures, make estimates and sense check their work. Pupils should apply their geometric and algebraic understanding, and relate their understanding of probability to the notions of risk and uncertainty. They should also understand the cycle of collecting, presenting and analysing data.