Glory Of Benin Kingdom And Shame Of British Empire
In the British designated the coastal town of Bonny as the administrative of the exiled monarch of the Benin Empire, Oba Ovonramwen Nogbaisi. when the Ijo's relationship to European imperialists was intensifying. The Oba was required to kneel down in front of the British military "resident" in the Benin of Oba Ovonramwen when the British invaded Benin in . A NEW ERA IN AFRICAN-EUROPEAN RELATIONSHIPS OR A MIRAGE? . american film institute1; american medical association1; american politics. The Benin Invasion of was a punitive invasion by a United Kingdom force of 1, under After British consul Richard Burton visited Benin in he wrote of Benin's as a place of "gratuitous barbarity which Gallwey was able to get Omo n'Oba (Ovonramwen) and his chiefs to sign a treaty which gave Britain legal .
His request to London was to depose the king of Benin City, replace him with a Native Council and pay for the invasion with the 'ivory' he hoped to find in the Benin king's palace. Unfortunately for Phillips, some Itsekiri trading chiefs sent a message to the Benin king that 'the white man is bringing war'.
On receiving the news the Benin king quickly summoned the city's high-ranking nobles for an emergency meeting, and during the discussions the Iyase, the commander in chief of the Benin Army argued that the British were planning a surprise attack and must be defeated.
The Benin king however argued that the British should be allowed to enter the city so that it can be ascertained whether or not the visit was a friendly one. The Iyase ignored the king's views, and ordered the formation of a strike force that was commanded by the Ologbosere, a senior army commander, which was sent to Ughoton to destroy the invaders. On 4 Januarythe Benin strike force composed mainly of border guards and servants of some chiefs caught Phillips' column totally unprepared at Ugbine village near Ughoton.
Since Phillips was not expecting any opposition and was unaware that his operation was being perceived with alarm in Benin, the contingent's only weapons, consisting of the officers' pistols, were locked up in the head packs of the African porters.
The operation was named the Benin Punitive Expedition, and on 9 February the invasion of the Benin kingdom began. The field commanders were instructed by their commander-in—chief to burn down all Benin kingdom's towns and villages, and hang the king of Benin wherever and whenever he was captured.
The 'Sapoba' column, and the 'Main column' reached Benin City after 10 days of bitter fighting but the 'Gwato' column was routed at Gwato. Aftermath[ edit ] Homes, religious buildings and palaces were deliberately torched. On the third day, the blaze grew out of control and engulfed part of the city. The city's walls were once the largest earthworks created in the pre-mechanized era and were estimated to be four times longer in total than the Great Wall of China.
It was an exercise that was carried out by all members of the expedition.
Monuments and palaces of many high-ranking chiefs were looted. There was evidence of previous human sacrifice found by the British, a tradition they construed as barbaric,  with Reuters and the Illustrated London News reporting that the town 'reeked of human blood. The British Admiralty confiscated and auctioned off the war booty to defray the costs of the Expedition.
In a letter to Lord Salisburythe British Foreign Secretary, Phillips requested approval to invade Benin and depose the Oba, adding the following footnote: Other streets opened from the main streets.
They were also wide. Houses were built in rows along all of the streets. On the street front side, houses had covered porches to keep people dry as they sat outside. The Dutch and Portuguese traders who came to Benin by sea were not invited into the nobles' or artists homes. So we don't know how their homes were arranged, or what the back looked like. But we do know about the palace. I went so far within these builds that I passed through four such squared, and wherever I looked I still saw gate after gate which opened into other places.
Founded by the Edo people, the kingdom was centred on present-day Benin City in southern Nigeria. With the accession of Ewuare the Great in the mid 15th century, the Benin kingdom was vastly expanded, including the founding of the city of Lagos.
Congress for more details Roese, P.
The British Conquest of Benin and the Oba’s Return | The Art Institute of Chicago
Oba Ewuare, the first Golden Age Oba, is credited with turning Benin City into a military fortress protected by moats and walls. It was from this bastion that he launched his military campaigns and began the expansion of the kingdom from the Edo-speaking heartlands. At its maximum extent the empire is claimed by the Edos to have extended from Onitsha in the east, through the forested southwestern region of Nigeria and into the present-day nation of Ghana.
The Ga tribe of Ghana trace their ancestry to the ancient Kingdom of Benin. These include bronze wall plaques and life-sized bronze heads of the Obas of Benin.
- The British Conquest of Benin and the Oba’s Return
- Oba Erediauwa: Adress at the Commencement of the Great Benin Centenary Activities (1997)
- The Oba of Benin Kingdom: A history of the monarchy
Org, we have this: At the height of its greatness, Benin's Obas patronized craftsmen and lavished then with gifts and wealth, in return for the depiction of the Oba's great exploits as fabulous and intricate bronze sculptures. Today a strong campaign is being waged to have these antiques returned to their rightful home in Nigeria.
The Binis, the British and the deposed Oba Ovonranmwen
Iron technology led to the development of weapons which changed the character of war. Rich iron ore deposits were not available in Benin and had to be imported from the Etsako area - north of Benin - which had large deposits.
Benin was able to develop an indigenous capacity to work the iron material into weapons of war. It is probable that this indigenous capacity which was basically the possession of iron smelting knowledge was acquired through training and apprenticeship of Benin blacksmiths in Etsako.
By the second half of the fifteenth century when Benin expanded its Empire virtually in all directions, it established control over the iron ore sources which was considered to be essential to the development of iron technology in the state. Consequently the Benin king issued an edict barring all British officials and traders from entering Benin territories.
In after the invasion and destruction of Brohimie, the trading town of Nana, the leading Itsekiri trader in the Benin River District by a combined British Royal Navy and Niger Coast Protectorate forces, Benin kingdom increased her military presence on her southern borders.
This vigilance, and the Colonial Office refusal to grant approval for an invasion of Benin City scuttled the expedition the Protectorate had planned for early Copland-Crawford, vice-Consul of the Benin district, made the first attempt, Mr.