Congress of Vienna - Wikipedia
The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to and (after ) France—pledged to meet regularly to resolve differences. The goal of the conservatives at the Congress, led by Prince Klemens von. The Congress of Vienna (German: Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance. The Congress of Vienna was held from September of to June of After the The means of achieving this goal would be through a major reshaping of European interior borders. Important People Results of the meeting: The goal of.
Representatives at the Congress agreed to numerous other territorial changes. This sparked the nationalist movement which led to the establishment of the Kingdom of Norway on May 17, and the subsequent personal Union with Sweden. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored to its mainland possessions, and also gained control of the Republic of Genoa. Other, less important, territorial adjustments included significant territorial gains for the German Kingdoms of Hanover which gained East Frisia from Prussia and various other territories in Northwest Germany and Bavaria which gained the Rhenish Palatinate and territories in Franconia.
Switzerland was enlarged, and Swiss neutrality was established.
Swiss mercenaries had played a significant role in European wars for a couple of hundred years: Portugal ratified the Final Act in but Spain would not sign, and this became the most important hold-out against the Congress of Vienna. Later criticism[ edit ] The Congress of Vienna has frequently been criticized by 19th century and more recent historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses, and for imposing a stifling reaction on the Continent.
Among these is Henry Kissingerwho in wrote his doctoral dissertationA World Restoredon it. Historian Mark Jarrett argues that the Congress of Vienna and the Congress System marked "the true beginning of our modern era". He says the Congress System was deliberate conflict management, and was the first genuine attempt to create an international order based upon consensus rather than conflict.
He says the Congress of Vienna avoided them and instead set up rules that produced a stable and benign equilibrium.
It served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations in and the United Nations in Before the opening of the Paris peace conference ofthe British Foreign Office commissioned a history of the Congress of Vienna to serve as an example to its own delegates of how to achieve an equally successful peace. The Italian peninsula became a mere "geographical expression" as divided into seven parts: The arrangements made by the Four Great Powers sought to ensure future disputes would be settled in a manner that would avoid the terrible wars of the previous 20 years.
One of Talleyrand's uncles was an archbishop and, as his physical disability was not a disqualification for clerical life, he was educated in theology at the seminary of Saint Sulpice despite his not having had any religious vocation. He was ordained a priest inand in was appointed agent-general of the French clergy - a role that involved great responsibilities with the finances of the Church. In March Talleyrand was named Bishop of Autun. Later that year Talleyrand was present in the Estates General that convened at Versailles from May to make representations before the King in relation to how a deep financial crisis in the French Royal state should be addressed.
There was an ancient tradition whereby an Estates General functioned in three sections - Aristocratic, Clerical, and Third Estate or Commoner - and Talleyrand initially opposed the proposal of that these three Estates should instead jointly convene as a National Assembly.
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Talleyrand found that, given the overall approach of those opposed to such a National Assembly and other reforms, he preferred to confine his own involvements to financial matters.
In the event the initial meetings of the Estates General were followed by a number of developments over the following weeks including the formation of a National Assembly against the wishes of the King and by demands for a Constitution that would provide a legal framework for the governance of France as a Constitutional monarchy.
In early August there was a dramatic renunciation of the previously feudal nature of French society. As the financing of the French state remained precarious Talleyrand, in turbulent times, proposed, on 10th October, that the lands of the church could be taken up by the Assembly into the service of the French nation.
The diplomacy of Talleyrand Congress of Vienna
Talleyrand was one of the very few bishops of the Catholic Church who subscribed to the so-called Civil Constitution of the Clergy whereby the National Constituent Assembly sought to exercise authority over the Catholic church in France.
In January Talleyrand resigned as Bishop of Autun and in March of that year was declared by the Pope to be an excommunicant.Alternate History of Europe Episode 1
Robespierre and others secured the passing of a measure in the Constituent Assembly whereby members of that assembly would not be eligible for election to the assembly that immediately succeeded it. This meant that Talleyrand was faced with the necessity of finding an alternative outlet his talents and he sought entry into the world of diplomacy. In January Talleyrand was sent by the French government to London, where he conducted informal negotiations for a British-French alliance - he was able to tell his superiors that the general climate of opinion in Britain was, at that time, fairly favourable to France.
Aim: What Were the Goals of the Congress of Vienna?
In August at a time when the new French state was threatened with invasion the French monarchy which had been compromised by unsuccessful efforts to flee to seek the protection of those who were now attempting to invade was overthrown. In September there were some massacres of those within France who were believed to be opposed to the reforms secured by the revolution - many of these murdered persons were readily available to the hostility of their assailants as they had been living as prisoners.
These developments tended to alienate British opinion. Talleyrand returned to England as a private citizen on 23rd September partly to escape the intensity of the course of events in France and partly in the hope of working towards preventing too wide a breach between France and Britain.
Prior to his departure he received the appropriate passports signed by Danton. It happened that Talleyrand's private efforts at diplomacy were rendered ineffective by continued unprecedented developments in France including the execution of King Louis XVI. Such a designation had previously been applied to many Aristrocratic and other opponents of the revolution who had decided to leave France and hence carried portentous political implications.
Talleyrand was also a suspect person in British eyes and as such was expelled from England in This expulsion prompted him to go to the United States where he was to live for many months up to November Upon his return to Europe Talleyrand landed in Hamburg and stayed several months with friends in the Germanies before returning to France in September In July he was appointed foreign minister under the Directory.
Talleyrand was appointed as foreign minister. In June the Pope recognised that Talleyrand was no longer to be regarded as an excommunicant and further recognised him as having reverted from being an ordained person to being a secular person. The congress as a representative body of all Europe never met. Decisions of the congress The major points of friction occurred over the disposition of Poland and Saxonythe conflicting claims of Sweden, Denmarkand Russia, and the adjustment of the borders of the German states.
In general, Russia and Prussia were opposed by Austria, France, and England, which at one point January 3, went so far as to conclude a secret treaty of defensive alliance. The major final agreements were as follows. Prussia got two-fifths of Saxony and was compensated by extensive additions in Westphalia and on the left bank of the Rhine River. It was Castlereagh who insisted on Prussian acceptance of the latter territory, with which it had been suggested the king of Saxony should be compensated.
Castlereagh wanted Prussia to guard the territories of the Rhine region against France and act as a buttress to the new Kingdom of the Netherlandswhich comprised both the former United Provinces and Belgium. Austria was compensated by Lombardy and Venice and got back most of Tirol. Hanover was also enlarged.
The outline of a constitution, a loose confederation, was drawn up for Germany —a triumph for Metternich. Switzerland was given a new constitution. Valuable articles were agreed to on the free navigation of international rivers and diplomatic precedence.
The Final Act of the Congress of Vienna comprised all the agreements in one great instrument. All the other powers subsequently acceded to it.