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SPECTRUM can use as input the fully blanketed stellar atmosphere models of Robert Kurucz including the new models of Castelli and Kurucz, but any other stellar atmosphere model which can be cast into the format of Kurucz's models can be used as well. Barkana, Rennan Because of their simplicity, axisymmetric mass distributions are often used to model gravitational lenses.
Since galaxies are usually observed to have elliptical light distributions, mass distributions with elliptical density contours offer more general and realistic lens models. They are difficult to use, however, since previous studies have shown that the deflection angle and magnification in this case can only be obtained by rather expensive numerical integrations. We present a family of lens models for which the deflection can be calculated to high relative accuracy with a greatly reduced numerical effort, for small and large ellipticity alike.
This makes it easier to use these distributions for modeling individual lenses as well as for applications requiring larger computing times, such as statistical lensing studies.
Bertschinger, Edmund COSMICS is a package of Fortran programs useful for computing transfer functions and microwave background anisotropy for cosmological models, and for generating gaussian random initial conditions for nonlinear structure formation simulations of such models. Four programs are provided: Probably the most important features of XSPEC are the large number of theoretical models available and the facilities for adding new models.
Nemiroff computes the visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending near a non-rotating black hole. The codes are general relativistically accurate and incorporate concepts such as large-angle deflections, image magnifications, multiple imaging, blue-shifting, and the location of the photon sphere.
The code currently tracks only the two brightest images of each star, and hence becomes noticeably incomplete within 1. WINGSPAN can be used to view and manipulate event time histories or count spectra, and also has the capability to perform spectral deconvolution via a standard forward folding model fitting technique Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Kallman, Tim XSTAR is a command-driven, interactive, computer program for calculating the physical conditions and emission spectra of photoionized gases.
It may be applied in a wide variety of astrophysical contexts. Stripped to essentials, its job may be described simply: A spherical gas shell surrounding a central source of ionizing radiation absorbs some of this radiation and reradiates it in other portions of the spectrum; XSTAR computes the effects on the gas of absorbing this energy, and the spectrum of reradiated light.
The user supplies the shape and strength of the incident continuum, the elemental abundances in the gas, its density or pressure, and its thickness; the code can be directed to return any of a large number of derived quantities, including but not limited to the ionization balance and temperature, opacity tables, and emitted line and continuum fluxes.
A unique aspect of this compilation is that the non-Gaussianity of the uncertainties has been characterized. The most important program in the package, written in the IDL language, is called chisq. There is an sm macro for plotting up the residuals, and a histogram of the residuals. The histogram is actually for the 'whitenend' residuals a linear combination of the residuals which leaves them uncorrelated and with unit variance.
The expectation is that the whitened residuals will be distributed as a Gaussian with unit variance. The code can handle both spherical and planar geometries.
The user specifies the properties of the radiation source and dusty region, and the code calculates the dust temperature distribution and the radiation field in it.
The solution method is based on a self-consistent equation for the radiative energy density, including dust scattering, absorption and emission, and does not introduce any approximations.
The solution is exact to within the specified numerical accuracy. DUSTY has built in optical properties for the most common types of astronomical dust and comes with a library for many other grains.
It supports various analytical forms for the density distribution, and can perform a full dynamical calculation for radiatively driven winds around AGB stars. The spectral energy distribution of the source can be specified analytically as either Planckian or broken power-law.
In addition, arbitrary dust optical properties, density distributions and external radiation can be entered in user supplied files. Furthermore, the wavelength grid can be modified to accommodate spectral features.MORNING MOTIVATION - How Successful People Start Their Day
A single DUSTY run can process an unlimited number of models, with each input set producing a run of optical depths, as specified. The user controls the detail level of the output, which can include both spectral and imaging properties as well as other quantities of interest. National Optical Astronomy Observatories IRAF includes a broad selection of programs for general image processing and graphics, plus a large number of programs for the reduction and analysis of optical and IR astronomy data.
These external packages are distributed separately from the main IRAF distribution but can be easily installed.
AIPS "Classic" is a software package for interactive and batch calibration and editing of astronomical data, typically radio interferometric data. AIPS can be used for the calibration, construction, enhancement, display, and analysis of astronomical images made from data using Fourier synthesis methods.
Design and development of the package begin in AIPS presently consists of over 1, lines of code andlines of documentation, representing over 65 person-years of effort. The data consists of atomic energy levels, atomic radiative data such as wavelengths, weighted oscillator strengths and A values, and electron collisional excitation rates.
A set of programs that use these data to calculate the spectrum in a desired wavelength range as a function of temperature and density are also provided. These programs have been written in Interactive Data Language IDL and descriptions of these various programs are provided on the website. The tree construction uses fast, parallel sorts.
The sorted lists are recursively divided along their x, y and z coordinates. This data structure is a completely balanced tree i. Each node in the tree is treated as a monopole. The tree search and the summation of accelerations also perform well. During the tree search, node data that is needed from another processor is simply fetched.
We apply the code to two problems of astrophysical interest. The first is a simulation of the close passage of two gravitationally, interacting, disk galaxies using 65, particles.
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We also simulate the formation of structure in an expanding, model universe using 1, particles. Our code attains speeds comparable to one head of a Cray Y-MP, so single instruction, multiple data SIMD type computers can be used for these simulations.
With further optimizations e. The FTOOLS package contains many utility programs which perform modular tasks on any FITS image or table, as well as higher-level analysis programs designed specifically for data from current and past high energy astrophysics missions. The utility programs for FITS tables are especially rich and powerful, and provide functions for presentation of file contents, extraction of specific rows or columns, appending or merging tables, binning values in a column or selecting subsets of rows based on a boolean expression.
Individual FTOOLS programs can easily be chained together in scripts to achieve more complex operations such as the generation and displaying of spectra or light curves. The user interface is controlled by standard parameter files that are very similar to those used by IRAF. The package is self documenting through a stand alone help task called fhelp.
The heart of the system is xcsao, which implements the cross-correlation method, and is a direct descendant of the system built by Tonry and Davis We discuss in detail the parameters necessary to run xcsao and emsao properly. We discuss the reliability and error associated with xcsao derived redshifts.
We develop an internal error estimator, and we show how large, stable surveys can be used to develop more accurate error estimators. However, November exports growth decelerated sharply to 5. That was mainly a result of declines in Iran, Venezuela and Nigeria, offsetting Saudi gains. The report comes days after OPEC and its allies--led by Russia--agreed to begin cutting production by a collective 1.
The report notes that the decision "should contribute to sustainability of market stability. Analysts say that Trump's comments lend credence to the widespread rumors that state-owned Chinese companies are buying million tonnes of soybeans out of the Pacific Northwest for state reserves.
Probably so," says Dan Hueber of the Hueber Report. However, a pick up in seasonal demand for vehicle batteries during cold weather could see prices heading higher through the remainder of this year as well as into next year, says Fitch.
As such, LME lead stocks currently stand at their lowest levels in over 5 years and a supply deficit of 36, tons is expected next year, Fitch adds.
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Federal Reserve next year, while palladium traded at a premium to the yellow metal. President Donald Trump sounded optimistic about a trade deal with China, while the dollar held near a one-month peak against its peers.
However, Pearce says that a partial government shutdown tends not to have a lasting effect on the stock market. House Republicans released a revised tax bill on Monday but the parties are still far apart on what should be included. This is expected to particularly affect soybeans futures, according to analysts - although could result in movement for all grain futures, more so than the USDA's WASDE report this afternoon.
Market participants have barely reacted to U. Typically strong wage growth would boost chances of the Bank of England raising interest rates, but uncertainty over Brexit and the possibility of the U. The unemployment rate remained at 4. Prime Minister Theresa May heads to Europe to try and secure concessions on the Brexit withdrawal agreement.
European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said there is no room for renegotiation but there is room to offer more clarity on the deal.
But analysts doubt sterling can sustain a rally. May cancelled a parliamentary vote on the deal, ING says "it would seem unlikely that whatever she secures [with the EU] is enough to win support in parliament for her withdrawal deal. However, uncertainty over Brexit and U. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to breakout of any longer-term downward trend," says Jasper Lawler at LCG. Prime Minister Theresa May on Monday called off a vote on her Brexit deal, which she looked set to lose heavily, causing the pound to slide.
She heads for talks with EU officials later in the day. On the corporate side, Ashtead and WPP will be watched after earnings updates. Dec 11 - Market Talk Roundup: Federal Reserve could pause its rate hike cycle sooner than expected and as the dollar slipped after the previous session's rally. In a statement, the agriculture chief lamented the lack of "progress" on work requirements for food stamp recipients, referring to the omission of controversial new requirements backed by House Republicans.
Perdue touted the bill's investments in agricultural research and trade programs as well as its preservation of the farm safety net, vowing to recommend it to President Trump if Congress passes the legislation. The bill comes at the end of a turbulent year for US farmers, following months of bitter partisan wrangling over food stamps and more. It marks the latest sign of U. The ADB says the U. The White House reportedly accedes to a Pentagon request to avoid cuts from prior-year levels.
At those levels, he expects US-driven output growth to slow and encourages America to more aggressively clamp down on Iranian crude exports by 2Q. Meanwhile, with the world economy slowing OPEC likely faces an uphill road to enable a sustained oil rally, posits Konstantinos Venetis, senior economist at TS Lombard. Dec 10 - Market Talk Roundup: And while the US-based wealth-management firm doesn't see the slowdown "snowball[ing] into something more serious It contends the "market should not underestimate the nationalism hype" despite Trump saying the incident won't derail trade talks.
The investment bank adds that although the arrest warrant was issued in August, the date of detention--the same day as Xi and Trump met at the Gstill prompted speculations in China that the trade war could be escalated to a tech war going into Dec 08 - Market Talk Roundup: Politics WSJ DJ Reuters - President Trump tweeted "China talks are going very well" about 10 minutes ago with investors also keeping an eye on trade tensions between the world's two largest economies.
The sticking point is Iran's refusal to agree to a symbolic output curb. OPEC's de-facto leader, Saudi Arabia, has insisted that Iran join the rest of the group in signing on to a shared cut, despite Iran having already reduced production in actuality due to U. The standoff means a deal could fall apart, according to people familiar with the matter. However, Russia--OPEC's largest external partner--has after much wrangling agreed to join a cut by slashing output bybarrels a day. Brent crude was last up 1.
Traders say a broker upgrade is boosting Tesco, which may also be benefiting from news on Thursday that a trial against two former company executives has collapsed. The FTSE is last up 1. Mike van Dulken, head of research at Accendo Markets, sees as the next target for the index, but warns there may be too many "unknowns" related to U. The US has a low-labor force participation rate relative to other developed nations, and businesses need to consider how they can draw workers back in, she says.
The Roundtable is an organization of CEOs that has been critical of the administration's immigration policies. That's similar to rates in the s when women were just beginning to enter the workforce in larger numbers.
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The arrest of a top Chinese tech executive has jittery investors concerned that a trade truce between the US and China could be more complicated than anticipated. Any continuing trade tensions would fuel lower demand for US cotton in China, a crucial importer of fiber. Investors are pushing down cotton prices ahead of a Friday release of export sales figures for the fiber. Cotton sales are behind the pace needed to make USDA export targets.
The continued wait for China's re-entry into buying US agriculture products combined with President Trump's continued Twitter threats of tariffs is weighing on prices. However, some pork market experts are maintaining belief that China will ultimately drop their tariff on US pork, stimulating consumption.
Federal Reserve's tightening cycle. Federal Reserve could pause from raising interest rates helped the metal recover from its steepest slide in five weeks in the prior session. A drop in oil prices adds to the negative sentiment as market awaits an agreement from Opec on whether or not to cut output.
There is some positive news from China as its Commerce Ministry says that Beijing would "immediately implement" agreements involving purchase of US products. ADP releases its private payrolls report for November at 8: There's talk that Huawei might have broken U. Possible disruptions--such as an escalation of the Italy-EU budget dispute, a hard Brexit or an end to the U.
The Chicago Fed District underscores the degree to which the labor market is tight: The report noted tariff-induced cost increases have spread from the manufacturing sector to other industries like retail and restaurants. In the Richmond Fed District, manufacturers cited tariffs as a concern for raising prices and lowering demand.