Opinion: Quebec and our way of being Canadian | Regina Leader-Post
The relationship between Quebec and the Rest of Canada (or “ROC”) has not always been easy. Tensions over language have raged for centuries, and over the. Confederation confirmed French Canadians as a minority but gave them in return in their attempt to redefine Québec's relationship with the rest of Canada. Humm! I can answer this in 2 ways: Relation: Canada is a country and Quebec is one Province within that country. Criminal Law in Canada is Federal - the same.
Meanwhile, in the FLQ stepped up its campaign of violence, which would culminate in what would become known as the October Crisis. In the provincial electionthe PQ won its first seven seats in the National Assembly. The referendum of [ edit ] Main article: Quebec referendum, In the electionthe PQ won 71 seats — a majority in the National Assembly. With voting turnouts high, Prior to the election, the PQ renounced its intention to implement sovereignty-association if it won power.
On May 17 PQ Member of the National Assembly Robert Burns resigned, telling the press he was convinced that the PQ was going to lose its referendum and fail to be re-elected afterwards. At its seventh national convention from June 1 to 3,the sovereignist adopted their strategy for the coming referendum.
The PQ then began an aggressive effort to promote sovereignty-association by providing details of how the economic relations with the rest of Canada would include free trade between Canada and Quebec, common tariffs against imports, and a common currency. In addition, joint political institutions would be established to administer these economic arrangements.
Sovereignty-association was proposed to the population of Quebec in the Quebec referendum. The proposal was rejected by 60 percent of the Quebec electorate. In September, the PQ created a national committee of Anglophones and a liaison committee with ethnic minorities.
The PQ was returned to power in the election with a stronger majority than inobtaining However, they did not hold a referendum in their second term, and put sovereignty on hold, concentrating on their stated goal of "good government". Quebec referendum, The PQ returned to power in the election under Jacques Parizeau, this time with In the intervening years, the failures of the Meech Lake Accord and Charlottetown Accord had revived support for sovereignty, which had been written off as a dead issue for much of the s.
At the Royal Commission on the Future of Quebec also known as the Outaouais Commission inthe Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada made a presentation in which the party leader, Hardial Bainsrecommended to the committee that Quebec declare itself as an independent republic.
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- Québec Since Confederation
The referendum question differed from the question in that the negotiation of an association with Canada was now optional. The open-ended wording of the question resulted in significant confusion, particularly amongst the 'Yes' side, as to what exactly they were voting for. This was a primary motivator for the creation of the 'Clarity Act' see below. The "No" campaign won, but only by a very small margin — The lowest support for Yes side came from Mohawk, Cree and Inuit voters in Quebec, some first Nations chiefs asserted their right to self-determination with the Cree being particularly vocal in their right to stay territories within Canada.
Later inquiries into irregularities determined that abuses had occurred on both sides: In the number of seats won by both sides, the election was almost a clone of the previous election. However, public support for sovereignty remained too low for the PQ to consider holding a second referendum during their second term.
Meanwhile, the federal government passed the Clarity Act to govern the wording of any future referendum questions and the conditions under which a vote for sovereignty would be recognized as legitimate.
The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to settlement patterns in 17th century New France.
Québec Since Confederation | The Canadian Encyclopedia
The topography of the Shield has been shaped by glaciers from the successive ice ages, which explains the glacial deposits of boulders, gravel and sand, and by sea water and post-glacial lakes that left behind thick deposits of clay in parts of the Shield.
The Canadian Shield also has a complex hydrological network of perhaps a million lakes, bogs, streams and rivers. It is rich in the forestry, mineral and hydro-electric resources that are a mainstay of the Quebec economy. While low and medium altitude peak from western Quebec to the far north, high altitudes mountains emerge in the Capitale-Nationale region to the extreme east, along its longitude.
In the Labrador Peninsula portion of the Shield, the far northern region of Nunavik includes the Ungava Peninsula and consists of flat Arctic tundra inhabited mostly by the Inuit.
Further south lie the subarctic taiga of the Eastern Canadian Shield taiga ecoregion and the boreal forest of the Central Canadian Shield forestswhere sprucefirand poplar trees provide raw materials for Quebec's pulp and paper and lumber industries.
The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentiansa mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowlandthat attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside resorts.
The Appalachian region of Quebec has a narrow strip of ancient mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec.
The Appalachians are actually a huge chain that extends from Alabama to Newfoundland.
Winters are long, very cold, and snowy, and among the coldest in eastern Canada, while summers are warm but very short due to the higher latitude and the greater influence of Arctic air masses. In contrast, urbanization fostered the growth of services and an increase in the number of jobs for office and store clerks, accountants, insurance agents and small retailers.
A new middle class of white-collar workers emerged. At the same time, however, another employment sector developed, made up of low-paying jobs filled mainly by young women. More and more of these women entered the labour market, taking jobs in industry and in services, and kept working until they got married. Their wages were much lower than those of men. The provincial Liberal Partyin power from towas solidly behind big business and the entry of American capital in the new resource-based industries.
The Gouin and Taschereau governments counted on technical and professional education along with scholarships to improve labour force training.
They invested heavily in road and highway infrastructures see Roads and Highways. In rural regions, they supported the growth of commercial farming. Under their leadership, the State became involved in support for social services and culture. However, the clergy was not rejecting outright a process over which it had no control; instead, it developed a new strategy of establishing organizations to make it possible to dominate the new economic and social order from within.
The first, which can be called the liberal ideology see Liberalismwas upheld by businessmen and most politicians. Emphasizing economic growth and the idea of progress, it placed a high value on the individual and free enterprise. Since they took the position that individual progress would lead to collective progress, they also believed that better education was the path to an improved economic situation.
They did not dare challenge the power of the clergy, even though some tried to limit it, and most refused to amend the rights of men, on the one hand, and of women, on the other see Status of Women. Opposed to the liberal ideology was the deeply traditionalist clerical-nationalist ideology, which suggested that the French-Canadian collectivity would achieve national well-being by withdrawing into itself and returning to rural life and traditional French-Canadian and Catholic values.
Upheld by nationalist intellectuals and many clergymen, this ideology was opposed to almost everything foreign. It was forcefully expressed in a number of publications and in sermons and speeches.
However, the real situation was much more complex. A return to traditional rural society was a dream that did not come true. Some representatives of the labour movement became involved in politics through the Parti ouvrier, but they were closer in their thinking to the British Labour Party than to European socialists.
The feminist movement gave women greater access to higher education and some professions, but the professions of lawyer and notary remained closed to them.
Quebec sovereignty movement
Inwomen won the right to vote federally, but the religious and political elites refused to give them the right to vote in provincial elections. The social conservatism of the elites affected culture too.
France remained a dominant force in the academic world and the arts. While Wilfrid Laurier was prime minister, French Canadians felt that they held some power. In fact, they witnessed the reduction of their educational and linguistic rights throughout various parts of the country, despite the vigorous battles fought by the nationalists. Another result of this electoral failure was that nationalism went in a new direction.
Great Depression and Second World War — The Great Depression of the s appeared to be a partial vindication of the clergy and the nationalist intellectuals who had long been predicting that the liberal model of society would fail.
In addition, its industries were hurt by a drop in domestic consumption. State Intervention All over Canada, traditional solutions based largely on private charity proved inadequate to cope with the Depression.
Governments had to intervene. Provincial governments were overwhelmed and appealed to Ottawawhich participated financially in assisting the unemployed. This intervention by the federal government in social policy led to a rethinking of Canadian federalism in the form of the Rowell-Sirois Commission see Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations. The Second World Warduring which Ottawa intervened extensively in economic management, played a determining role in this respect.
During the Depression and the war, the idea of more systematic government intervention, based on Keynesian economic policies, was gradually accepted. In a federal system such as Canada's, however, such a development raised a fundamental question: In general, English Canadians came to believe that this was the responsibility of the federal government, which should provide for equality of opportunity from coast to coast.
During the war, the federal government could impose its own solution, but once the war was over the issue reappeared, and as vexatious as ever.
In the economic disorder brought about by the Depression, there were many challenges to the prevailing political and social system. Although communist and socialist groups grew substantially in Canada during the s, they had little success in recruiting French Canadians, among whom left-wing traditions were very weak.
Among French Canadians, nationalist and traditionalist movements enjoyed new popularity instead. Ina group of priests and laypersons published the Programme de restauration sociale, or Social Recovery Program, which emphasized nationalism and corporatism. The alliance became the Union Nationaleand the following year it won the election, with the result that Duplessis took over as premier. Taking a very conservative stance on policy matters, the new government introduced farm credit and assistance to mothers in need but was unable to stimulate an economy that was still in crisis.
It lost the election. Effects of Global Conflict Ideological effervescence of the s was calmed by the war. InOttawa held a Canada-wide plebiscite on the question of conscription. As a consequence, a new party, the Bloc populaire canadienwas created, with a federal and a provincial wing. However, it enjoyed very little success in elections. The war also had highly significant long-term social consequences, which manifested themselves both concretely and in attitudes. Thousands of women worked in factories as part of the war production system, and even though many returned to traditional family life after the war, this exposure had long-term effects see Women and War.
They were increasingly integrated into the industrial capitalist economy, as many of them left the countryside to work in factories while others introduced changes that made their farms much more productive. His government introduced a number of reforms heralding the spirit of the Quiet Revolution.7 Facts about Quebec
It settled issues that had been the subject of endless debate: It passed the Labour Code and launched a study on health insurance. This was conspicuous in the natural resource sector, where it was stimulated by American demand.