Joint session of the United States Congress - Wikipedia
A joint session of the United States Congress is a gathering of members of the two chambers of Vice President Gore, who as Vice President was required to preside over his own Electoral College defeat (by The first non-dignitary to address a joint meeting of Congress was Polish Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa in Information on how to track Congressional Activity via a days in session calendar. Calendars from the current Congress will be replaced when the final official. It's a lot more than your average American worker. In , Congress was in session for days out of work days. That's far less time.
The Senate was effectively controlled by a half dozen men.
Committee chairmen remained influential in both houses until the reforms of the s. Important structural changes included the direct election of senators by popular election according to the Seventeenth Amendment ratified in April 8,with positive effects senators more sensitive to public opinion and negative effects undermining the authority of state governments.
Roosevelt 's election in marked a shift in government power towards the executive branch.
Joint session of the United States Congress
More complex issues required greater specialization and expertise, such as space flight and atomic energy policy. Kennedy narrowly won the presidency and power shifted again to the Democrats who dominated both houses of Congress until The Republicans have been similarly disabled. Congress enacted Johnson's Great Society program to fight poverty and hunger. The Watergate Scandal had a powerful effect of waking up a somewhat dormant Congress which investigated presidential wrongdoing and coverups; the scandal "substantially reshaped" relations between the branches of government, suggested political scientist Bruce J.
Political action committees or PACs could make substantive donations to congressional candidates via such means as soft money contributions.
Ina delegate for the District of Columbia was authorized, and in new delegate positions were established for U. Virgin Islands and Guam. These six Members of Congress enjoy floor privileges to introduce bills and resolutions, and in recent congresses they vote in permanent and select committees, in party caucuses and in joint conferences with the Senate.
U.S. Senate: Joint Sessions & Meetings of Congress
They have Capitol Hill offices, staff and two annual appointments to each of the four military academies. While their votes are constitutional when Congress authorizes their House Committee of the Whole votes, recent Congresses have not allowed for that, and they cannot vote when the House is meeting as the House of Representatives.
Article I of the Constitution creates and sets forth the structure and most of the powers of Congress. Sections One through Six describe how Congress is elected and gives each House the power to create its own structure. Section Seven lays out the process for creating laws, and Section Eight enumerates numerous powers. Section Nine is a list of powers Congress does not have, and Section Ten enumerates powers of the state, some of which may only be granted by Congress. Congress also has implied powers derived from the Constitution's Necessary and Proper Clause.
Congress has authority over financial and budgetary policy through the enumerated power to "lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States". There is vast authority over budgets, although analyst Eric Patashnik suggested that much of Congress's power to manage the budget has been lost when the welfare state expanded since "entitlements were institutionally detached from Congress's ordinary legislative routine and rhythm".
Congress has an important role in national defenseincluding the exclusive power to declare war, to raise and maintain the armed forcesand to make rules for the military. Congress oversees other government branches, for example, the Senate Watergate Committeeinvestigating President Nixon and Watergatein — One of Congress's foremost non-legislative functions is the power to investigate and oversee the executive branch.
In the Plame affaircritics including Representative Henry A. Waxman charged that Congress was not doing an adequate job of oversight in this case. The speech is modeled on the Speech from the Thronegiven by the British monarch.
There is a major difference, in that the President is the principal author of his own State of the Union address, while the Speech from the Throne is customarily written by the Prime Minister. The Constitution of the United States requires that the president "shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union," but does not specify whether the information should be given in a speech or a written report.
The first two presidents, George Washington and John Adamsdelivered the speech in person before both houses of Congress, but that practice was discontinued by Thomas Jeffersonwho considered it too monarchical and sent written reports instead. Written reports were standard untilwhen Woodrow Wilson reestablished the practice of personally attending to deliver the speech.
Since then, on a number of occasions presidents have presented a written report, usually for medical reasons. Foreign dignitaries[ edit ] Winston Churchill addresses Congress in Indonesian President Sukarno addresses Congress in Pope Francis addresses Congress in Joint meetings have been held more than a hundred times to enable foreign heads of state or heads of government to address Congress.
Leaders of 48 countries have addressed Congress at a joint meeting: France leads the list with nine joint meeting addresses by heads of state or dignitaries.
U.S. Senate: Sessions of Congress
Other leading countries are: John HowardPrime Minister of Australiahad originally been scheduled to address Congress on September 12,but his address was postponed due to the September 11 terrorist attacks the previous day.
Howard's address was rescheduled for June 12, where he spoke about the attacks he had witnessed 9 months earlier. Howard was acknowledged with a standing ovation and describes the occasion as a "moving moment.
The Pope did not address the joint session as a religious dignitary but as a head of state. Presidential addresses[ edit ] In addition to a State of the Union address, presidents address Congress on specific subjects.
The first such speech was delivered by John Adams on the subject of U. The most popular subjects for such addresses are economicmilitary and foreign policy issues.
Joint Sessions & Meetings of Congress
In addition to bringing back the tradition of delivering a State of Union address, Woodrow Wilson was the first president since John Adams to address Congress on specific topics. He delivered 17 such speeches, more than any other president. Military leaders[ edit ] Closing words of MacArthur's final address to a joint meeting of Congress Joint meetings are sometimes called to hear addresses by generalsadmiralsor other military leaders.
Perhaps the most notable example is Douglas MacArthur's farewell address to Congress. In concluding the speech he recalled an old army song which contained the line "old soldiers never die; they just fade away". He then said, "And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty.
Inaugurations of vice presidents[ edit ] Vice Presidents who are appointed under the 25th amendment are sworn in before a Joint Session of Congress.