Third Estate makes Tennis Court Oath - HISTORY
Opening of the Estates General on May 5, in the Grands Salles des Menus- Plaisirs in Versailles. In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General ( French: États généraux) or The Estates General met intermittently until and only once afterwards, but was not definitively dissolved until after the French . The Estates General didn't meet regularly and had no real power. In , the King Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General. It was the first meeting. Critique the National Assembly, its establishment, and its goals Left,” a group still relatively united in support of revolution and democracy. It was influenced by the doctrine of natural right, stating that the rights of man are held to be universal. , by the members of the French Estates-General for the Third Estate.
The members of the Parlement began to jest that they required either the accounting States or the Estates General. The King could not let this slight to his authority pass. Parlement was commanded to assemble at the King's palace at Versailles where, on 6 August, he ordered them in person to register the taxes.
On 7 August back in Paris, the Parlement declared, in earnest this time, that the order was null and void, repudiating all previous registrations of taxes. Only the Estates General, they said, could register taxes.
He did not personally appear. By messenger he and Parlement negotiated an agreement: Parlement was allowed to return on 20 September. On that day at They would confer with each other and have the decisions registered immediately, they said. They argued the problems and issues concerned until dusk, some six hours later.
Parlement believed that the problem had gone beyond the government and needed the decisions of the Estates General which did not correspond to the King's concept of monarchy. At the end of the day, the King demanded the registration of the Successive Loan.
On being told it was a Royal Session he replied that edicts were not registered at Royal Sessions. Lettres de Cachetor arbitrary arrest warrants, followed on the 20th for D'Orleans and two others. They were taken into custody and held under comfortable conditions away from Paris; D'Orleans on his country estate.
Parlement began a debate on the legality of Lettres de Cachet. The Grand Bailliages, or larger legal jurisdictions that once had existed, would assume Parlement legal functions, while the Plenary Court, last known under Louis IXwhen it had the power to register edicts, would assume the registration duties of the Parlement, leaving it with no duties to perform.
The King planned a sudden revelation and dismissal of Parlement. Hearing it read the next day, 3 MayParlement swore an oath not to be disbanded and defined a manifesto of their rights.
The King sent his guards into Parlement to arrest them. Parlement filed silently out between a line of guards. The commander gave the key to the building to the King. The latter refused unanimously following the Parlement of Paris. If the King's commissioners forced the issue Parlement abandoned the meeting place only to return the next day to declare the registration null and void. Armed protest swept the kingdom.
Street fighting broke out at RennesBrittany. A deputation sent to Paris from there was imprisoned in the Bastille. The Grand Bailliages could not be created and the Plenary Court met only once. It comprised two parts: The "most notable persons" of each community and judicial district are summoned "to confer and to record remonstrances, complaints, and grievances.
He says that he intends "reform of abuse," "establishment of a fixed and durable order," and "general prosperity. During the preceding autumn the Parlement of Paris, an aristocratic advisory body to the King, had decided that the organization of the convention would be the same as inthe last time the Estates had met.
As years had gone by since then it is clear the Estates were not a functional institution in French society.
By reviving them as much as possible like they had been the King and the Parlement intended to control the authority of the people. The previous Estates had voted by order; that is, the Nobles and the Clergy could together outvote the Commons by 2 to 1. If on the other hand, each delegate were to have one vote, the majority would prevail.
The issue was widely discussed in the press during the autumn of The people would nevertheless accept any national convention confident that enough members of the Nobility and the Clergy would be with them to sway the votes. A National Party was formed.
It argued that France had never had a constitution and the proper function of the Convention was to establish one. The royalist defenders, however, accepted the absolute monarchy as the constitution. Just to be certain the press began to demand that the Commons be allocated twice as many delegates as each of the other two Estates. In an attempt to bolster his failing popularity the King acceded to this measure of "doubling the Third.
The lands were controlled by bishops and abbots of monasteries, but two-thirds of the delegates from the First Estate were ordinary parish priests; only 51 were bishops. About a third of the deputies representing the Second Estate were nobles, mostly with minor holdings. The Third Estate representation was doubled to men, representing 95 percent of the population of roughly 25 million.
Half were well-educated lawyers or local officials.
Estates General (France)
Nearly a third were in trades or industry; 51 were wealthy land owners. Each tax district cities, boroughs, and parishes would elect their own delegates to the Third Estate.
The Bailliages, or judicial districts, would elect delegates to the First and Second Estates in separate ballots. Each voting assembly would also collect a Cahier, or "Notebook", of grievances to be considered by the Convocation.The National Assembly (French Revolution: Part 3)
The election rules differed somewhat depending on the type of voting unit, whether city, parish or some other. Generally, the distribution of delegates was by population: The City of Paris was thus dominant. The electorate consisted of males 25 years and older, property owners, and registered taxpayers. They could be native or naturalized citizens. The First and Second Estates had each. But French society had changed sinceand these Estates-General were not identical to those of Members of the nobility were not required to stand for election to the Second Estate, and many of them were elected to the Third Estate.
The total number of nobles in the three Estates was about The king would call a meeting of the Estates General when he wanted the advice on certain issues. The Estates General didn't meet regularly and had no real power. The Estates General was made up of different groups of people called "Estates.
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What estate you belonged to had a major impact on your social status and quality of life. First Estate - The First Estate was made up of the clergy. These were people who worked for the church including priests, monks, bishops, and nuns.
This was the smallest estate in terms of population. These people held most of the high offices in the land, got special privileges, and didn't have to pay most of the taxes. These people were the peasants, craftspeople, and laborers of the land.
They paid taxes including the gabelle a tax on salt and the corvee they had to work a certain number of days for free for the local lord or the king each year. It was the first meeting of the Estates General called since He called the meeting because the French government was having financial problems.
Estates-General | Definition, Meeting, & History | dayline.info
How did they vote? One of the first issues that came up at the Estates General was how they would vote.
The king said that each estate would vote as a body each estate would get 1 vote. The members of the Third Estate did not like this.