The First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia. British General Thomas Gage declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. George Washington to Massachusetts General Court, September 28, . if the evidence about them does not suggest that the former Colonies and Great Britain are now at war. From George Washington to Lieutenant General Thomas Gage, 19 August to mild Treatment and the General does not doubt that your Conduct towards. At Lexington Green, the British were met by approximately seventy Search through the George Washington Papers on Thomas Gage for.
This skirmish began the Battle of the Monongahelain which Braddock was mortally wounded, and George Washington distinguished himself for his courage under fire and his leadership in organising the retreat. The commander of the 44th, Colonel Sir Peter Halkettwas one of many officers killed in the battle and Gage, who temporarily took command of the regiment, was slightly wounded. Loudoun approved the plan before he was recalled that month, also recommending Gage to the king for promotion to full colonel.
Gage spent the winter in New Jersey, recruiting for the newly raised 80th Regiment of Light-Armed Footthe "first definitely light-armed regiment in the British army.
General Thomas Gage
By February Gage was in Albanypreparing for that year's campaign, and he and Margaret were married on 8 December of that year. Gage, whose regiment was in the British vanguard, was again wounded in that battle, in which the British suffered more than 2, casualties.
When Amherst learned that the French had also abandoned Fort St. Expected reinforcements from Fort Duquesne had not arrived, the French military strength at La Galette was unknown, and its strength near Montreal was believed to be relatively high.
General Thomas Gage
Gage, believing an attack on La Galette would not gain any significant advantage, decided against action, and sent Amherst a message outlining his reasons. He was also forced to deal with civil litigation, and manage trade with the Indians in the Great Lakes region, where traders disputed territorial claims, and quarrelled with the Indians. When peace was announced following the Treaty of ParisGage began lobbying for another posting, as he was "very much [tired] of this cursed Climate, and I must be bribed very high to stay here any longer".
When he did so, he inherited the job of dealing with the Indian uprising known as Pontiac's Rebellion.
Pontiac's Rebellion Following the conquest of New France, Amherst, who had little respect for Indians, instituted policies that severely hampered British-Indian relations, principally forbidding the sale of ammunition to them.
Combined with widespread concern about British expansion into their territories, this prompted the tribes of the Ohio Country and the formerly French Pays d'en Haut to rise against the British. No authentic images of the chief are known to exist. Inthe 42nd Royal Highland Regiment finally got through to Fort Cavendishthe last fort still in French hands.
The conflict was not fully resolved until Pontiac himself travelled to Fort Ontario and signed a formal treaty with Johnson in July InAmherst announced that he had no intention of returning to North America, at which point Gage's appointment to that post was made permanent.
Amherst retained posts as governor of Virginia and colonel of the 60th Foot, positions he only gave up in when he was required to actually go to Virginia or give up the post. Gage was promoted to lieutenant general in The arrest was based on flimsy evidence that Rogers might have been engaging in a treasonous relationship with the French; he was acquitted in a court martial.
These funds made it possible to send all of the Gage children at least six of whom survived to adulthood to school in England.
In addition to securing advantageous positions for several people named Gage or Kemble, he also apparently assisted in the placement of some of his friends and political supporters, or their children.
As a result, Gage began withdrawing troops from the frontier to fortify urban centres like New York City and Boston. Parliament passed the Quartering Act ofpermitting British troops to be quartered in vacant houses, barns, and outbuildings, but not private residences.
He at first believed that the popular unrest after the Stamp Act was primarily due to a small number of colonial elites, led by those in Boston. In he recommended the deployment of two regiments to occupy Boston, a move that further inflamed the city. Among the troops quartered in the city was the 29th Regiment of Footwhich had previously clashed with colonists in Quebec and New York, and had a reputation for poor discipline. This occupation eventually led to the Boston Massacre in He saw the movement of colonists into the interior, beyond effective Crown control, and the development of the town meeting as a means of local governance as major elements of the threat, and wrote in that "democracy is too prevalent in America".
She was suspected by some of her contemporaries and by later historians of harbouring sympathies for the Patriot cause, and of supplying intelligence to Patriot leaders. His arrival was met with little pomp and circumstance, but was generally well received at first as Bostonians were happy to see Hutchinson go.
With the former he was successful—Church secretly supplied him with intelligence on the activities of rebel leaders—but Adams and other rebel leaders were not moved.
- Thomas Gage
- Thomas Gage (ca. 1719-1787)
In Septemberhe ordered a mission to remove provincial gunpowder from a magazine in what is now SomervilleMassachusetts. The Sons of Liberty kept careful watch over Gage's activities and successfully warned others of future actions before Gage could mobilise his British regulars to execute them. Having impressed the King with "his Character as an honest determined Man," Gage was given almost complete freedom in enacting the orders he got from London. Lord Dartmouth, the Secretary of State for the American Colonies, strongly encouraged particular actions, such as the arrest of the leading radical malcontents or the seizure of colonial military stores, but his every letter was accompanied by the assurance that how, or even whether, Gage pursued such measures was entirely up to him.
Consequently, Gage did very little. Abiding by the Coercive Acts, he shifted the provincial capital from Boston to Salem and, in Septemberattempted to confiscate gunpowder in Cambridge, but the appearance of hundreds of local militiamen caused him to withdraw into Boston to await reinforcements. With 3, regular troops under his command, Gage declared he needed thousands more and a full coastal naval blockade. After several months of receiving increasingly feverish requests from Gage, confidence in his ability to handle the situation evaporated, and three major generals - William Howe, Henry Clinton, and John Burgoyne — were sent with reinforcements to assist Gage.
On April 19,Gage finally decided to act after an uncharacteristically forceful letter from Dartmouth. He sent a detachment to seize military sources in Concord and arrest two of the leading radicals, John Hancock and Samuel Adams. The operation achieved nothing except to rally the patriots to "The Shot Heard 'Round the World" and cost Gage considerable losses during a nightmarish running battle from Concord back to Boston.
The city was then besieged by thousands of militiamen from across New England, penning Gage and his forces. The reinforcements arrived in May, but the situation did not improve as Gage continued to vacillate. In June the provincial troops placed artillery on high ground that commanded Boston, which forced Gage to try dislodging them.
He ordered a frontal assault against the colonial fortifications on Breed's Hill overlooking Charlestown. On June 17, Major General William Howe sent his men up the hill held by roughly entrenched provincials.
It took three attacks to drive the Americans from Breed's and Bunker hills and then entirely off the peninsula in one of the costliest battles of the entire War for Independence. The British lost 1, men about 40 percentincluding a strikingly high number of officers.
Thomas Gage - Wikipedia
In fact, of all the British officers killed in the war, one out of every eight was lost at what has become known as the Battle of Bunker Hill. Gage was ordered home in October and never again held a field command. His only other military activity came in when he again assisted Amherst, his superior of 30 years before, in preparing the defenses of England against a potential French attack. When the North ministry fell intaking with it many of those who remembered his mistakes inGage was promoted to full General, but it was his final honor.