How Animals Choose What to Eat – On Pasture
All animals have to get protein or amino acids through the diet, but they just and digest large quantities of plant matter to meet their needs. Start studying How animals meet their needs. Learn vocabulary, terms, and What are the five basic needs of animals? Proper climate. Air Water Food Shelter. In general, the highest nutritional requirements are for lactation, followed also affects the amount of feed an animal needs to maintain its body.
Fungi also form symbiotic associations with cyanobacteria and green algae called lichens. Lichens can sometimes be seen as colorful growths on the surface of rocks and trees.
The algal partner phycobiont makes food autotrophically, some of which it shares with the fungus; the fungal partner mycobiont absorbs water and minerals from the environment, which are made available to the green alga. If one partner was separated from the other, they would both die. Epiphytes An epiphyte is a plant that grows on other plants, but is not dependent upon the other plant for nutrition.
Epiphytes have two types of roots: Insectivorous Plants An insectivorous plant has specialized leaves to attract and digest insects. The Venus flytrap is popularly known for its insectivorous mode of nutrition, and has leaves that work as traps. The minerals it obtains from prey compensate for those lacking in the boggy low pH soil of its native North Carolina coastal plains.
There are three sensitive hairs in the center of each half of each leaf. The edges of each leaf are covered with long spines. Nectar secreted by the plant attracts flies to the leaf. When a fly touches the sensory hairs, the leaf immediately closes. Next, fluids and enzymes break down the prey and minerals are absorbed by the leaf.
Since this plant is popular in the horticultural trade, it is threatened in its original habitat. A Venus flytrap has specialized leaves to trap insects. At the cellular level, the biological molecules necessary for animal function are amino acids, lipid molecules, nucleotides, and simple sugars. However, the food consumed consists of protein, fat, and complex carbohydrates.
Animals must convert these macromolecules into the simple molecules required for maintaining cellular functions, such as assembling new molecules, cells, and tissues. The conversion of the food consumed to the nutrients required is a multi-step process involving digestion and absorption. During digestion, food particles are broken down to smaller components, and later, they are absorbed by the body.
Animals obtain their nutrition from the consumption of other organisms. Depending on their diet, animals can be classified into the following categories: The nutrients and macromolecules present in food are not immediately accessible to the cells.
There are a number of processes that modify food within the animal body in order to make the nutrients and organic molecules accessible for cellular function. As animals evolved in complexity of form and function, their digestive systems have also evolved to accommodate their various dietary needs.
Herbivores, Omnivores, and Carnivores Herbivores are animals whose primary food source is plant-based. Examples of herbivores, as shown below, include vertebrates like deer, koalas, and some bird species, as well as invertebrates such as crickets and caterpillars. These animals have evolved digestive systems capable of handling large amounts of plant material. Herbivores can be further classified into frugivores fruit-eatersgranivores seed eatersnectivores nectar feedersand folivores leaf eaters.
Herbivores, like this a mule deer and b monarch caterpillar, eat primarily plant material. Obligate carnivores are those that rely entirely on animal flesh to obtain their nutrients; examples of obligate carnivores are members of the cat family, such as lions and cheetahs.
Facultative carnivores are those that also eat non-animal food in addition to animal food. Note that there is no clear line that differentiates facultative carnivores from omnivores; dogs would be considered facultative carnivores.
Carnivores like the a lion eat primarily meat. The b ladybug is also a carnivore that consumes small insects called aphids. In Latin, omnivore means to eat everything. Humans, bears and chickens are example of vertebrate omnivores; invertebrate omnivores include cockroaches and crayfish.Needs Of Animals - Food and Shelter - Animal Homes - Science - Grade 1 - Periwinkle
Omnivores like the a bear and b crayfish eat both plant- and animal-based food. Carbohydrates or sugars are the primary source of organic carbons in the animal body.
During digestion, digestible carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into glucose and used to provide energy through metabolic pathways. Complex carbohydrates, including polysaccharides, can be broken down into glucose through biochemical modification; however, humans do not produce the enzyme cellulase and lack the ability to derive glucose from the polysaccharide cellulose.
In humans, these molecules provide the fiber required for moving waste through the large intestine and a healthy colon. The intestinal flora in the human gut are able to extract some nutrition from these plant fibers. The excess sugars in the body are converted into glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for later use. Glycogen stores are used to fuel prolonged exertions, such as long-distance running, and to provide energy during food shortage.
Animals Have to Learn What to Eat Foraging behavior and diet selection are primarily learned behaviors. Thus, young animals have to learn what to eat, when, and where. Animals that are moved into or in some other way find themselves in unfamiliar locations must also learn the lay of the land as well as evaluate the foods that are available.
And sometimes animals become ill and can be found to eat plants that are not overly nutritious or abundant, but have medicinal value. And they are really good at it. However, selecting what to eat can be dangerous. Consuming the wrong plant at the wrong time or eating too much of one plant and not enough of another can cause sickness, malnutrition and even death. Moreover, foraging in locations where the foods are not nutritionally adequate, sufficiently abundant, or are too tall or too short for attaining high rates of intake, simply increases the time they spend looking for food, which decreases the foraging efficiency of the animal, reduces their intake, and lowers performance.
Fortunately, animals are well-equipped to learn, and start by learning from mother and herd mates, and then from their own experience.
Nutritional Requirements of Livestock
Folic acid is another common supplement, as is iodine in certain areas. Breastfeeding mothers need a varied, nutritious diet too. They should have adequate supplies of energy and protein. Lots of fluids, such as fruit juices and soups are also important.
Babies Breastmilk is the natural food for babies. Breastmilk has the added advantage of boosting the baby's resistance to disease. It is safe, inexpensive and provides all the nutrients most babies need for the first six months of life. Breastfeeding can continue up to two years. While breastmilk is the basic food of the baby, milk alone is not enough to meet the increased nutritional needs as the baby grows older. By six months babies should be introduced to other foods to supplement the energy, protein, vitamins and minerals provided by breastmilk.
This will also accustom the baby to varieties in food flavours and textures. Foods for babies require special preparation to make sure that they are soft, clean and easy to digest. To meet all of the baby's nutritional needs it will be necessary to add foods high in energy and other nutrients oil, fruit, vegetables, legumes and animal products to the family's staple food.
Once the baby is accustomed to liquid and soft foods, and as the teeth appear, semi-solid and then solid foods can gradually be introduced to the diet. Preparing safe and nutritious supplementary foods can take a lot of time and effort.
Nutritional Requirements of Livestock - eXtension
Many mothers and fathers, especially young and first time parents, need practical advice and assistance to help them provide their babies with the foods they need. Young Children Young children are often the most at risk of being malnourished. They have very high energy and nutrient needs for their body size in comparison to adults. Proper care and feeding is essential for their normal growth, development and activity. Children can eat many of the same foods as their parents.
They should be encouraged to eat enough of a variety of energy and protein-rich foods and fruit and vegetables for growth and body maintenance.
Children cannot eat the same amount of food in one meal as adults. They also expend a lot of energy throughout the day. They should sustain energy requirements by eating small meals and snacks spread over the day. Children need to maintain their diet of energy-rich and body-building foods throughout their growing years until they reach adulthood. They should be encouraged to exercise and stay active so that the high energy intake does not result in obesity.
Sick children must be encouraged to eat and drink, even if they have little appetite. They should be offered softer textured foods and the foods they like best. Lots of fluids milk, fruit juice, soups and clean water - are especially important when a child has diarrhoea. Children recovering from fevers and sickness should also be given plenty of energy and nutrient-rich foods to eat. Eating habits are established early on, so it's important to teach children at an early age how to get the best from food.