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Due to glaciations, flooding, rivers changing course and deforestation the iodine present in top soil is constantly leached. This in turn leads to deficiency of iodine in crops grown on iodine deficient soil with consequently low iodine in the diet for livestock and humans.
In the past, iodine deficiency was thought to cause only goitre and cretinism. However, over the last quarter of the century, it has become increasingly clear that iodine deficiency leads to a much wider spectrum of disorders commencing with the intrauterine life and extending through childhood into adult life with serious health and social problems. The spectrum of diseases includes goitre, cretinism, hypothyroidism, brain damage, abortion, still birth, mental retardation, psychomotor defects and hearing and speech impairment 2.
Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time preventable. IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide leading to learning disabilities and psychomotor impairment 3. Children living in iodine-deficient areas on an average have lower intelligence quotient IQby as much as IDD are a major challenge to the health of populations the world over particularly among preschool children and pregnant women in low-income countries.
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Globally two billion people are at risk of iodine deficiency disorders due to insufficient iodine intake 6. Nearly million school-aged children worldwide have insufficient iodine intake. Of the countries which reported data for IDD in comprising Impressive gains have been made in household-level coverage of adequately iodized salt more than 15 part per million of iodine content globally.
Currently countries worldwide have implemented USI and over 71 per cent of the population worldwide consumes adequately iodized salt Globally, India has the largest number of children born vulnerable to iodine-deficiency However, India subsequently revised the IDD control goal in We look critically at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and the threats facing the IDD control activities in India.
Of the districts surveyed in India so far, districts are IDD-endemic, i. The prevalence of goitre was highest in Maharashtra In India the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. Of these, an estimated million people are at risk of IDD as they consume salt with inadequate iodine Table I. Every year nine million pregnant women and eight million newborns are at risk of IDD in India.
These estimates are based on the household-level coverage of adequately iodized salt as reported in Coverage Evaluation Survey CES and extrapolated to total population estimates from Census provisional figures 15 Children in the age group of yr, women in the household, retail shop keepers and other community stakeholders constituted the study population. All three indicators, viz. TGR ranged from 0. Table II Open in a separate window Iodised salt coverage at household level In India as per the Coverage Evaluation Survey 1591 per cent of households had access to iodized salt, of whom 71 per cent consumed adequately iodized salt.
Another 9 per cent consumed salt with no iodine. This will require the selection and use of the most appropriate analysis tool depending on the data collected nature qualitative, quantitative or mixed and the intended results descriptive, comparative, or predictive.
Observational methodology, proposes certain procedural structures —observational designs— through a set of criteria which are the natural bases of observational studies. In each study, once the objectives have been defined, the observational designs established then guide the entire process, influencing the preparation of the observation instruments, the recording and its metrics, the observational sample, data quality control and to a large extent the choice of the most appropriate analysis techniques.
They also have a significant repercussion on the interpretation of the results. In football, unlike other team sports of cooperation-opposition and simultaneous participation, due to its complex nature Davids et al.
Performance in this sport has a multidimensional setting and can be grouped into two broad areas of study.
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On the one hand, we would find analytical factors related to conditional aspects and, on the other hand, competition factors that would require an analysis in its natural context. Within the latter, tactical-strategic aspects allow to better reflect the nature of the game and to better understand its development.
In recent years this type of work has proliferated Hughes and Franks, ; Lago, aiming to detect successful play patterns through the analysis of different game situations and different variables. Some of these studies focus their interest in studying the offensive phase Ensum et al. To acquire objective information that permits assessing team performance Carling et al. One of the most studied indicators in football research has been possession Bate, ; Dawson et al. In recent years this variable has acquired greater significance due to the success of teams like F.
Barcelona and the Spanish national team who have maintained hegemony in European and world football using a playstyle based on possession and taking the lead through keeping the ball.
This fact is reinforced by some studies that claim that greater possession implies greater team success. But it seems presumptuous to claim that longer possession time ensures greater success, as the results of different studies are inconclusive and reality shows how teams with low possession time are also successful, as demonstrated by studies like those of Bate which indicates that teams are more likely to achieve goals having the ball near the goal zone and not the longer you keep the ball on your own possession, even though these two variable are often related.
Stanhope also indicates that possession did not represent the successful teams of the FIFA World Cup, although it seems that the game strategies used by the successful teams have evolved over the years into a more possession based playstyle.NatComp 2011 (Northern Zone) - Sultanah Asma School Band - PART 1
Collet concludes that the effect of possession time in matches of the domestic league was negative, in the UEFA Champions League had no effect and in National team tournaments was not significant, leading to think that the influence of possession on success will depend on team capacity.
Possession time or offensive phase duration could also be explained by the playstyle selected or some situational variables. Some studies have shown that possession is influenced by the match status Sasaki et al. Another variable that modulates possession time is the match location, and some studies show that home teams have longer possession times than away teams James et al.
The quality of rival team also varies possession time, being greater when facing rivals with low capacity level Jones et al. A transcendental aspect when possession is analyzed as a performance indicator is to discern the quality of it, as Collet advises.
It will therefore be important to not only quantify the time a team retains possession during the offensive phase, but also to identify the zone in which it is carried out as keeping the ball in fruitless offensive zones away from the goal might not guarantee the success of the offensive phase, although it may be a recommended strategy to defend possession in circumstances that reccomend it.
In this study, an analysis of ball possession of the UEFA Euro France was realized, the main objective being to identify the possible relationship between possession time and the zone in which it develops with team success, reflected in the results of the match. That is, we want to know whether the successful and unsuccessful teams are characterized by more or less possession in certain zones of the field, showing a different offensive game.