Oxy High Performance Meet - Meet Results
Results - New Jersey Indoor Group State Championships. Feb 9th Heat Sheets - Oxy High Performance Meet. May 17th. The life and times of a teenage Oxycodone dealer. three Boise high schools he attended as a result of frequent family moves. In , he rented a three- bedroom town house in southeast Boise with . If bankers asked, Serb told them he ran a business importing high-performance car parts from Japan. ; Young and Shapiro , ; Riceberg and Shapiro ; Rudebeck et al. In humans and rodents, repeated performance of goal-directed behaviors can . after the final drug injections, both groups required fewer trials to meet criterion on same Oxycodone exposure impaired high-frequency reversal learning.
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European Indoor Championships m 5th. World Cross Country Championships 11th. World Athletics Final m bronze — European Championships m silver. Commonwealth Games m 9th. European Junior Cross Country Championships 5th 1st team Born in Mogadishu, Somalia, he moved to England in and was identified at school as having great potential by his PE teacher, Alan Watkinson and went on to be a very successful junior athlete, winning a silver medal at the European Junior Cross Country Championships.
The Alan Storey-coached athlete only made a breakthrough on to the senior stage inwhen he lowered his lifetime best from At the World Championships, he made his first world final, finishing a creditable 6th and then improved his lifetime best to He was sixth at the World Indoor Championships in Valencia and apart from a victory at the European Cup, the summer campaign was something of a disappointment, as he failed to progress through his heat at the Olympic Games, although he did end the year on a high with a third successive win on Tyneside, winning the Great North Mile.
After a six-week training stint in Ethiopia, he won the silver medal at the European Cross Country Championships. This moved him to second on the European all-time list behind Alberto Garcia, who failed a drugs test soon afterwards and only Dave Moorcroft has run faster outdoors for a British athlete.
Farah lived up to the pre-race expectations in the European Indoor final, taking the gold medal in a championship record of 7: He won the inaugural European Team Championship m in Lieira, Portugal but finished a slightly disappointing 7th in the World Championship final in Berlin after a rewarding year where he finished top of the British rankings at m, m, m and 10k road To date, drug-induced deficits in reversal learning have only been identified using tasks that use relatively stable reward contingencies Jentsch et al.
Further, drug-induced deficits on these tasks have been identified in rats exposed chronically to cocaine or amphetamine and subsequently trained and tested 1—12 wk after drug exposure was discontinued Schoenbaum et al. Given these data, we predicted that rats given limited opiate exposure would continue to respond to formerly rewarded goal arms after contingencies changed, and that this deficit would be most prominent in tasks that used relatively stable contingencies.
However, the rats in the present study were not impaired in a LFR task demonstrated in recent work to be impaired by OFC lesions Riceberg and Shapiro Several methodological differences may contribute to the divergent results.
The present study trained rats before drug exposure and confirmed retention of the initial task after drug exposure ended, prior to reversal training.
Oxycodone, an opiate analgesic with high abuse liability Compton and Volkow ; Walsh et al.
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OFC deficits may vary with the duration of drug-free periods. Selective inactivation of OFC neurons that respond to drug-paired cues reduces drug-seeking in heroin-dependent rats after 14 d, but not 1 d, of withdrawal Fanous et al. If OFC deficits emerge as more time elapses after the end of drug exposure, then rats exposed to oxycodone should be more impaired in LFRs when tested after longer drug-free intervals. After training in LFRs, saline-exposed rats adapted rapidly and responded consistently to the new contingencies, rarely making errors.
In contrast, oxycodone-exposed rats learned HFRs more slowly and made more perseverative errors than controls.
Perseverative and nonperseverative errors can be distinguished clearly in the radial maze because more than two potential goal arms are available to the rat. Though impaired at learning the first HFR, the oxycodone-exposed rats maintained a spatial strategy, alternating between the previous and current goal arm and rarely entering other available arms.
Oxy High Performance Meet 2011 - HEAT SHEETS ARE OUT!
The errors were not consistent with a body-turn strategy. Interestingly, the errors were typically not consecutive, as might be expected if the drug exposure induced rigid, compulsive responding.
Instead, errors typically occurred after correct choices, indicating that drug-exposed rats did not maintain correct responses even after receiving a reward. Rather, oxycodone exposure disrupted the integration of recent reward history, a computation that allows rapidly changing contingencies to guide adaptive choices.
Performance on this task was also impaired by contralateral inactivation of the mPFC and dorsal hippocampus Ragozzino et al.
These data suggest that rapid spatial reversal learning requires the interaction between the mPFC and hippocampus, perhaps because rules and strategies coded by the mPFC select appropriate hippocampal journey codes Shapiro et al. This view predicts that errors could correlate with miscoding or inappropriate retrieval of recent journeys by hippocampus or rules by mPFC Ferbinteanu and Shapiro ; Rich and Shapiro Maze discrimination and reversal learning can, in principle, be maintained by several cognitive strategies, including recent explicit memory, stimulus—response S—R associations, immediate reward contingencies, and expectancies based on integrated reward history White and McDonald ; White Indeed, performance on the LFR task may have been facilitated by the formation of reward expectancies based on integrated reward history e.
Drug-exposed rats trained first on LFRs were more likely than controls to revisit previously rewarded arms i. This explanation is also consistent with the body-turn impairment identified in oxycodone-exposed rats. Multiple memory systems and the role of the dorsolateral striatum Experiment 3 tested behavioral flexibility using an egocentric reversal task in which rats had to learn a body-turn response e.
Oxycodone-exposed rats learned the body-turn reversal more slowly than controls, in part because they returned to the previously rewarded arm each time a trial started from the other start arm. Because this task used a plus-maze, distinguishing between perseverative and nonperseverative errors was impossible, because all errors during reversals had been the correct response in the previous block.
Similarly, the plus-maze task cannot be used to distinguish whether the oxycodone-exposed rats reverted to the previously rewarded body-turn response or returned to the most recently rewarded spatial location. The physiological mechanisms required for cognitive flexibility may be impaired by direct pharmacological effects of the drug on synaptic plasticity.
For example, S—R associations made prior to drug exposure were presumably encoded via enduring changes to corticostriatal circuits, in part through dopaminergic modulation of striatal synapses White These associations are strengthened each time that a given response e. Indeed, DLS neurons recorded from rats exposed to cocaine fire more rapidly in response to cues that predict appetitive stimuli Takahashi et al. In mice exposed chronically to ethanol, long-term depression declined and synaptic arborization increased in the DLS; S—R learning also improved DePoy et al.