Why does cystic fibrosis display the prevalence and distribution observed in human populations?
Tuberculosis is a dangerous bacterial infection that attacks the lungs. WebMD explains how What Is Cystic Fibrosis? That's why it's often spread among co- workers, friends, and family members. . Sex and Relationships. The gene that causes cystic fibrosis may persist in human simply did not kill enough people to explain the CF gene's persistence, they found. However, between and , TB caused 20% of all deaths in Europe. Cystic fibrosis is a recessive monogenetic condition which is devastating for the evolutionary fitness of the sufferer. Fibrosis, Tuberculosis, Heterozygote advantage Many of the arguments put forward to explain this allele frequency . data (Prelationships between CF heterozygotes.
Using estimates of mortality from TB in different regions, Poolman and Galvani [ 7 ] determined that only Tuberculosis TB could account for modern-day CF incidence rates in Euro-descendent populations. We aimed at conducting an in-depth analysis of this putative link between CF mutations and TB and decided to do so in Brazil.
The country meets four conditions vital to conduct meaningful research on this topic.
This results in significant CF incidence and carriership rate [ 9 ]. Third, the dominant Brazilian Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mtb strain is the same in Europe and the Americas [ 11 ]. Finally, elaborate datasets for CF and TB are available. Given this unique context in Brazil, we analyse whether support for the CF-TB hypothesis can be provided from a health geographical point of view.
This is done through a multidisciplinary, multiscalar spatial epidemiological study, addressing the question: Cystic fibrosis results when both copies of the CFTR gene are mutated. Therefore, a carrier is someone who does not have the disease but contains a mutation in one of his or her CFTR genes but their second CFTR gene is normal. Scientists have hypothesized that carriers of cystic fibrosis possess a selective advantage better protecting them against the illnesses typhoid and tuberculosis caused by bacterial infection.
In this way, CFTR mutations responsible for cystic fibrosis could continue to be passed down through time. This, however, raises the obvious question of how is it possible that a CF mutation, which is often considered harmful, is able to provide protection from typhoid and tuberculosis? The answer to this is found in how the bacteria interact with the CFTR chloride channel during infection. Salmonella typhi is the bacterium responsible for typhoid fever, and has been found to enter intestinal cells during infection through attachment to the CFTR channel.
It is an inherited disease by means of hereditary. It is mainly caused by a faulty gene. Tuberculosis TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. TB is spread through the air from one person to another.
The TB bacteria are put into the air when a person with TB disease of the lungs or throat coughs, sneezes, speaks, or sings. People nearby may breathe in these bacteria and become infected. The relationship between CF and TB will be explained in this study.
Currently the disease affects over people in the United Kingdom alone.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis
Most of the cases are detected through screening immediately after birth. Symptoms usually start in early childhood and include persistent cough ,recurring chest and lung infections and poor weight gain. Figure 1 Causes of Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a faulty gene called the cystic Fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. This prevents all the cells in the body from functioning properly.
It allows in too much salt and not sufficient water in the body causing build- up of thick mucus in your airways and digestive system.
One would have the disease if you inherit both genes from both parents. One becomes a carrier if they inherit from one parent and will never exhibit any symptoms. They may however pass it onto their offspring. Figure 2 Diagnosis Cystic fibrosis is one of the conditions babies are screened for with the newborn blood spot test.
A small amount of the baby's blood is taken by a heel prick and transferred onto a card. The blood sample on the card is then analyzed in the laboratory for cystic fibrosis and eight other conditions, including sickle cell anemia. Treatment We do not have a cure for CF at present however there are several procedures used to manage the disease. These procedures help to ease the symptoms of the condition, to manage the lung functioning, to ensure affected persons have a balance diet at all times to maintain growth and minimise the complications associated with the disease.
Has Tuberculosis Contributed to the Global Rates of Cystic Fibrosis?
CF patients do not digest food very well hence it is always advised to take in foods that are high in energy to maintain healthy weight and to fight infection.
Routine exercise could help strengthen the lungs and the muscular of a patient. You could seek advice from a physiotherapist to determine the right form of exercise if necessary. Exercises help to clear the mucus from the lungs. Figure 3 There are also medications available for CF. Antibiotics are used to treat the chest and the lungs from infections. Pancreation are also used to help replace missing enzymes that cannot reach your bowel to allow you to properly digest food that you eat.
Mucolytic are also used to help breakdown thick, sticky mucus. Insulin is also used in case diabetes is diagnosed; this helps to break down the amount of sugar in the body. Oxygen therapy is also recommended when a CF patient suffer Hypoxia. This condition occurs when the oxygen levels in the body falls. Oxygen therapy involves inhaling oxygen through a mask or a small tube that sit beneath your nostrils.
This helps to improve the oxygen flow in the bloodstream. Figure 4 The image shows how a nasal cannula and portable oxygen container are attached to a patient.
In extreme complication, Transplant is used as a last option. A lung transplant could help avoid death in such circumstances.
- Has Tuberculosis Contributed to the Global Rates of Cystic Fibrosis?
Tuberculosis TB TB is an airborne disease hence it could spread from one person to the other. This occurs when the person with TB breath through the air.