Volume , Article ID , 5 pages The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of lighting and noise Physical condition of the workplace in terms of environmental ergonomics, occupational health, and work. Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people and their work environments, Poor ergonomics leads to a number of serious physical problems. number of researchers in Nigeria, there is still a dearth in knowledge of . this study is a critical examination of past studies to assess how ergonomics design and . depicted his own conceptual view of the relationship between ergonomics .
In order to increase human productivity, the first step is always creating healthy working environment [ 3 ]. Besides having negative effect on human health like desire to increase resting time during working hours, reduction in human concentration, tiredness, and absence from work for being monotonous [ 45 ], inappropriate inner environment has also a negative effect on human performance and their comfort during working hours.
Human factors and ergonomics
It has been estimated that inappropriate working environment causes millions of dollars losses [ 6 ]. So keeping work environment safe and healthy along with providing human health and comfort and increasing their productivity and performance will increase organization productivity and also will increase quality and quantity of its products and services.
Physical condition of the workplace in terms of environmental ergonomics, occupational health, and work psychology includes lighting, noise, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow rate [ 7 — 9 ].
Exposure to noise because of work is in connection with negative effect on human health, and its connection with being deaf has been truly approved. In industrial environment, exposure to the noise is in connection with a vast range of physical effects on health, in this regard we can mention heart disease and absence due to work illness and tiredness [ 10 ].
- Ergonomics and the workplace
Moreover, some studies have shown the connection of response dose of noise exposure and outbreak of psychological distress in industrial workers [ 11 ]. In addition to direct influences, exposure to the noise in work environment has negative effect on human performance by causing psychological stress [ 13 ]. Also the studies have shown that noise exposure in work environment has negative effect on tasks needing concentration [ 14 ], performance in investigating and mental tasks needing high mental power [ 15 ], and measuring performance in detecting the number of repetitive tasks functions [ 16 ].
The direct and indirect influences of lighting intensity on human productivity and capacity as another environmental factor have been examined in various studies, such as improvement of lighting condition which will decrease vision disturbance and neck and shoulder pains [ 17 ].
Also improving lighting system causes decrease in eye fatigue and headache [ 18 ]. Also negative effect of lighting quality and its efficiency on occupational performance, human temper, health, job satisfaction, and comfort has been studyied.
Energetic and high quality lighting provides more adjustment between the person and its work environment [ 1920 ]. Given the above, levels of noise and light by directly and indirectly affecting physical and mental aspects, impact human productivity and performance. So improving its condition will have positive effect on humans and their productivity. Because of assembling vehicles parts with different size and shape, automotive assembly industries require special physical and mental needs and making different aspects of work healthy, like controlling noise and improving lighting system which is an important and effective task.
In most of the industries in Iran, noise is considered as a fundamental issue because of not observing controlling issues, which will influence human health and performance.
Beside this, task nature in Iran is different from that of other countries, and this difference is because of occupational security, management, and labor law, amount of payment, and social, economic, and cultural conditions which will influence human productivity.
So this study aims to investigate whether noise level and lighting intensity can have influence on human productivity regardless of the above-mentioned issues and if it is effective, how much it is, so we can improve the changes of this two parameters for improving human productivity.
Material and Methods 2. Subjects This cross-sectional study has been done on employees from different units of Farman Khodro Sepahan Co.
Human factors and ergonomics - Wikipedia
Isfahan, Iran in August—November Different units in this study include administrative, commercial buying and sellingassembly units of Nissan and Paykan, drilling, production, machining, welding, warehouse, and technoengineering. At first, demographic information including age, sex, height, weight, job experiment, level of education, job, and the related unit of each person has been gathered.
Having at least one year of occupational background in related unit was the criterion for entering the test. Other factors include not having heart disease, severe muscular disorder, and diabetes. Exposure to equivalent noise level Leq in each station was 8 hours of daily exposure and 40 hours of weekly exposure.
Average level Leq was considered for each station. As operator station was fixed, local measurement of noise around the worker was used. Noise level gauges were calibrated by special calibrator, Lutron. Finally, for comparing achieved results by the Standard measurements, standard measurements of Iran noise level2nd edition, technical committee of occupational health, Iran management office of work and environment health were used which are according to the standards of ACGIH.
This device was calibrated in reference laboratory of hygiene center of Isfahan province. Also it was calibrated by zero point calibration method before measuring in units. Measuring total lighting intensity natural and artificial lighting by lux was done in workers stations at the height of 30 inches. For comparing the amount of measured lighting intensity to the standard amounts, the standards announced by,2nd edition, technical committee of occupational health, Iran management office of work and environment health were used which are according to the Standards of Lighting Engineering Association of North America IESNA.
The amount of lighting defined in this standard for each location has been defined as two amounts, the minimum amount and the recommended amount. Human Productivity Assessment For determining the amount of productivity, questionnaire of Goldsmith and Hersey [ 21 ] was used. In compilation of this model, these two researchers tried to determine the issues key factors that can have influence on human performance and also determine these issues in such a way that a manager can use them [ 21 ].
And seven variables including ability, clarity and confidence, help or supportincentive or motivationevaluation, validity, and environment were examined. Scoring this scale will be according to the 5-choice scale of Likert. Validity and stability of this scale were achieved by Kronbakh Alfa coefficient 0.
Descriptive statistics was used for examining the average and deviation of measured amounts criterion in the statistical group of the studied people. The relation between noise, lighting, and human productivity was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient test. The average of noise, lighting, and human productivity according to the units has been listed in Table 1. Average of noise, lighting, and productivity. The results gained from Pearson correlation coefficient between noise level and productivity level showed that productivity has a significant relationship with noiseFigure 1.
Analysis of data related to lighting and productivity by Pearson correlation coefficient showed that productivity does not have significant relationship with lighting intensityFigure 1: Relationship between noise level dBA and human productivity in automotive assembly industry.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders WRMDs result in persistent pain, loss of functional capacity and work disability, but their initial diagnosis is difficult because they are mainly based on complaints of pain and other symptoms. These types of jobs are often those involving activities such as repetitive and forceful exertions; frequent, heavy, or overhead lifts; awkward work positions; or use of vibrating equipment.
Cognitive ergonomics Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system.
Organizational ergonomics[ edit ] Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes. History of the field[ edit ] In ancient societies[ edit ] The foundations of the science of ergonomics appear to have been laid within the context of the culture of Ancient Greece. A good deal of evidence indicates that Greek civilization in the 5th century BC used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs, and workplaces.
One outstanding example of this can be found in the description Hippocrates gave of how a surgeon's workplace should be designed and how the tools he uses should be arranged. In industrial societies[ edit ] In the 19th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor pioneered the " scientific management " method, which proposed a way to find the optimum method of carrying out a given task. Taylor found that he could, for example, triple the amount of coal that workers were shoveling by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shoveling rate was reached.
They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4.
Bekhterev argued that "The ultimate ideal of the labour problem is not in it [Taylorism], but is in such organisation of the labour process that would yield a maximum of efficiency coupled with a minimum of health hazards, absence of fatigue and a guarantee of the sound health and all round personal development of the working people. Dull monotonous work was a temporary necessity until a corresponding machine can be developed.
He also went on to suggest a new discipline of "ergology" to study work as an integral part of the re-organisation of work. The war saw the emergence of aeromedical research and the need for testing and measurement methods. Studies on driver behaviour started gaining momentum during this period, as Henry Ford started providing millions of Americans with automobiles. Another major development during this period was the performance of aeromedical research. Many tests were conducted to determine which characteristic differentiated the successful pilots from the unsuccessful ones.
During the early s, Edwin Link developed the first flight simulator. The trend continued and more sophisticated simulators and test equipment were developed. Another significant development was in the civilian sector, where the effects of illumination on worker productivity were examined. This led to the identification of the Hawthorne Effectwhich suggested that motivational factors could significantly influence human performance.
It was no longer possible to adopt the Tayloristic principle of matching individuals to preexisting jobs. Now the design of equipment had to take into account human limitations and take advantage of human capabilities. The decision-making, attention, situational awareness and hand-eye coordination of the machine's operator became key in the success or failure of a task.
There was substantial research conducted to determine the human capabilities and limitations that had to be accomplished.
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A lot of this research took off where the aeromedical research between the wars had left off. An example of this is the study done by Fitts and Joneswho studied the most effective configuration of control knobs to be used in aircraft cockpits. Much of this research transcended into other equipment with the aim of making the controls and displays easier for the operators to use.
The entry of the terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" into the modern lexicon date from this period. It was observed that fully functional aircraft flown by the best-trained pilots, still crashed.
In Alphonse Chapanisa lieutenant in the U. Army, showed that this so-called " pilot error " could be greatly reduced when more logical and differentiable controls replaced confusing designs in airplane cockpits.
After the war, the Army Air Force published 19 volumes summarizing what had been established from research during the war. It was the climate for a breakthrough.
Alphonse ChapanisPaul Fittsand Small. Also, many labs established during WWII started expanding. Most of the research following the war was military-sponsored.
Large sums of money were granted to universities to conduct research. The scope of the research also broadened from small equipments to entire workstations and systems. Concurrently, a lot of opportunities started opening up in the civilian industry. The focus shifted from research to participation through advice to engineers in the design of equipment.
Afterthe period saw a maturation of the discipline. The field has expanded with the development of the computer and computer applications. Tolerance of the harsh environment of space and its effects on the mind and body were widely studied  Information age[ edit ] The dawn of the Information Age has resulted in the related field of human—computer interaction HCI.
Likewise, the growing demand for and competition among consumer goods and electronics has resulted in more companies and industries including human factors in their product design. Using advanced technologies in human kineticsbody-mapping, movement patterns and heat zones, companies are able to manufacture purpose-specific garments, including full body suits, jerseys, shorts, shoes, and even underwear.
Present-day[ edit ] Ergonomic evaluation in virtual environment In physical ergonomics, digital tools and advanced software allow analysis of a workplace.
Ergonomics and the workplace
An employee's movements are recorded using a motion capture tool and imported into an analyzing system. The body structure, sex, age and demographic group of the mannequin is adjustable to correspond to the properties of the employee. The software provides several different evaluations such as reachability test, spaghetti diagram, or visibility analysis. Human factors organizations[ edit ] Formed in in the UK, the oldest professional body for human factors specialists and ergonomists is The Chartered Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factorsformally known as the Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors and before that, The Ergonomics Society.
The Society's mission is to promote the discovery and exchange of knowledge concerning the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds.
According to it mission statement, ACE unites and advances the knowledge and skills of ergonomics and human factors practitioners to optimise human and organisational well-being. The mission of the IEA is to elaborate and advance ergonomics science and practice, and to improve the quality of life by expanding its scope of application and contribution to society.
As of Septemberthe International Ergonomics Association has 46 federated societies and 2 affiliated societies. From the outset the IOM employed an ergonomics staff to apply ergonomics principles to the design of mining machinery and environments. To this day, the IOM continues ergonomics activities, especially in the fields of musculoskeletal disorders ; heat stress and the ergonomics of personal protective equipment PPE.
Like many in occupational ergonomics, the demands and requirements of an ageing UK workforce are a growing concern and interest to IOM ergonomists. The International Society of Automotive Engineers SAE is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in the aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle industries. The Society is a standards development organization for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds, including cars, trucks, boats, aircraft, and others.
The Society of Automotive Engineers has established a number of standards used in the automotive industry and elsewhere. It encourages the design of vehicles in accordance with established human factors principles. It is one of the most influential organizations with respect to ergonomics work in automotive design. This society regularly holds conferences which address topics spanning all aspects of human factors and ergonomics. Designers industrial, interaction, and graphicanthropologists, technical communication scholars and computer scientists also contribute.
Typically, an ergonomist will have an undergraduate degree in psychology, engineering, design or health sciencesand usually a master's degree or doctoral degree in a related discipline. Though some practitioners enter the field of human factors from other disciplines, both M.
Methods[ edit ] Until recently, methods used to evaluate human factors and ergonomics ranged from simple questionnaires to more complex and expensive usability labs. Using methods derived from ethnographythis process focuses on observing the uses of technology in a practical environment.