# Relationship between air temperature and ground map

temperature map as one of the steps in estimating global Enhanced A map of the variation in the difference between the air temperature and. Remote prediction of ground temperature in Australian soils and mapping its average ground temperature to average annual air temperature; in relation to. Evaluation of air–soil temperature relationships simulated by land .. Spatial maps of the correlation coefficients between snow depth and T.

### Soil Temperature Maps by Depth

Point D is located in the center of a closed low described below. The mb height at point D is certainly lower than m, but not at low as m, since that contour does not show up within the closed low. For now, I want you to be able to estimate the pattern of air temperatures based on the pattern of height contours shown on the map.

The height of the mb surface is related to the temperature of the atmosphere below mb -- the higher the temperature, the higher the height of the mb level. In other words, the mb height at any point on the map tells us about the average air temperature in the vertical column of air between the ground surface and the mb height plotted at that point.

The height pattern tells us where the air is relatively cold and where it is relatively warm see mb side view. We already discussed this when we were going over hurricanes.

Here, we briefly review that concept. If you warm a column of air, it expands, therefore air pressure decreases more slowly as you ascend through a warm column of air, compared to a cold column of air. Another way to think about it is that as air is warmed, it expands, and if the air in a vertical column of air is warmed, the column expands upward.

Therefore air pressure decreases more slowly as you ascend through a warm column of air, compared to a cold column of air. Consider what the mb pattern would look like if air temperatures decreased steadily from the equator toward the north pole.

Note this is what you might guess based on the fact that the Sun's heating is strongest toward the south and weakest toward the north. In that case the height contours would be concentric circles around the north pole with the highest heights to the south toward the equator. While this is generally true, the actual pattern at any given time is wavy.

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Where the height lines bow northward a ridgewarm air has moved north; and where the height lines bow southward a troughcold air has moved south. Therefore, in general warmer than average temperatures can be expected underneath ridges and colder than average temperatures can be expected underneath troughs See Figure. The more pronounced the ridge or troughthe more above or below average the temperatures will be. The terminology "trough" and "ridge" is related to the fact that the contour lines often look like waves.

A "ridge" is the high point of a wave, and a "trough" is the low point of a wave. A simple diagram is shown below. Additional maps and diagrams will be used in lecture to help you understand what is meant by this. One other feature in the mb pattern worth pointing out are closed lows and closed highs. A closed low on a mb height map is a region of low heights around which one or more closed height contours are drawn.

## Introduction to 500 mb maps

A closed contour line is one which closed in on itself, often making a circular or oval shape. A closed low indicates a pool of colder air surrounded by warmer air. Two closed lows are indicated on this sample mb map.

• Soil Temperature Maps by Depth

Closed lows are most often found near the base of troughs as in the example. Depending of the strength of the closed low there can be more than one closed contour line encircling the center of lowest height, which is sometimes marked with and 'L' on the maps. Closed lows are often associated with precipitation and a change toward colder conditions, and thus are important features in the weather pattern.

There are also closed highs, which are centers of high heights surrounded by one or more closed contours. Closed highs are commonly found near the apex of a ridge. A large closed high assoicated with a huge ridge covers much of Arizona on this mb map for October 19, If you select "loop", you will see a movie of the forecast.

Set the Level to mb. Until you are more familiar with the maps, you should make the following selections to see the mb height pattern: University of Wyoming's weather model page Estimating temperature from mb pattern The height contours on the map are actually the height of the mb pressure surface above sea level.

The average air pressure near the ground is about mb, and since air pressure decreases as one moves upward, at some altitude the air pressure will fall to mb. The details of air pressure will be explained in subsequent lectures, so don't worry if you don't understand it right now. Notice that the height contours generally fall into the range - meters see sample mb height map. For now, I want you to be able to estimate the pattern of air temperatures based on the pattern of height contours shown on the map.

The height of the mb surface is related to the temperature of the atmosphere below mb -- the higher the temperature, the higher the height of the mb level. In other words, the mb height at any point on the map tells us about the average air temperature in the vertical column of air between the ground surface and the mb height plotted at that point. The height pattern tells us where the air is relatively cold and where it is relatively warm see mb side view.

We already discussed this when we were going over hurricanes.

Here, we briefly review that concept. If you warm a column of air, it expands, therefore air pressure decreases more slowly as you ascend through a warm column of air, compared to a cold column of air. Another way to think about it is that as air is warmed, it expands, and if the air in a vertical column of air is warmed, the column expands upward.

Therefore air pressure decreases more slowly as you ascend through a warm column of air, compared to a cold column of air. Consider what the mb pattern would look like if air temperatures decreased steadily from the equator toward the north pole. Note this is what you might guess based on the fact that the Sun's heating is strongest toward the south and weakest toward the north. In that case the height contours would be concentric circles around the north pole with the highest heights to the south toward the equator.

While this is generally true, the actual pattern at any given time is wavy. Where the height lines bow northward a ridgewarm air has moved north; and where the height lines bow southward a troughcold air has moved south. Therefore, in general warmer than average temperatures can be expected underneath ridges and colder than average temperatures can be expected underneath troughs See Figure. The more pronounced the ridge or troughthe more above or below average the temperatures will be.

The terminology "trough" and "ridge" is related to the fact that the contour lines often look like waves. A "ridge" is the high point of a wave, and a "trough" is the low point of a wave. A simple diagram is shown below.