Therefore, we investigated the relationship between height, weight and BMI on the risk of primary hip and knee joint replacement in a. Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate correlation between height, weight, body mass index. (BMI)with standing thoracic and lumbar curvature. The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with.
Therefore, we investigated the relationship between height, weight and BMI on the risk of primary hip and knee joint replacement in a prospective study of middle-aged women. Subjects and methods Study population The Million Women Study is a population-based prospective cohort study that recruited 1.
The study aims, methods and the characteristics of the study population have been described elsewhere [ 16 ]. Briefly, women were recruited through attendance at breast-screening clinics and were asked to complete a baseline questionnaire, which included questions on socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric factors and medical history. In —, women who entered the study were sent a follow-up questionnaire to update exposure information and ascertain certain incident morbidity.
On the return of the questionnaire, if the respondents had written down an operation, this was manually coded by clinical coders and entered into the study database. Revision joint replacements were coded separately. We presumed that the accuracy of self-reporting would be similar between participants recruited in England and Scotland.
Participants who had returned a follow-up questionnaire and had their responses entered into a database by 31 December were eligible to be included in these analyses. All the participants provided written consent to be included in the study and the study protocol has been approved by the English National Health Service Eastern Multi-Centre Research Ethics Committee.
Analysis Cases were defined as women who at follow-up reported a hip or knee replacement after recruitment. Women who reported more than one operation were counted once, in the respective analysis, taking the date of their first joint replacement since recruitment. As we were interested in operations that were performed for osteoarthritis and not resulting from fractures or inflammatory arthritis, we excluded women who reported fractures of the hip or knee tibiofemoral region within the 6 months preceding the date of their respective joint replacement and those who reported a history of rheumatoid arthritis or cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer at entry to the study.
Relative risks for the relationship between height, weight and BMI on incident hip replacement or knee replacement were calculated using a Cox regression model.
The time variable was defined as the time from recruitment to the first hip or knee replacement, respectively, or to the date that the follow-up questionnaire was completed, which ever was first. The relative risks were adjusted for potential and known risk factors; age in 2-yr intervalsregion of recruitment 10 regions, broadly representative of health authority areas, and hence a proxy for health service provisionsocioeconomic status in tertiles based on the deprivation index—a score based upon residential address that takes into account unemployment, overcrowding, car and home ownership [ 17 ]and BMI and height, where appropriate.
Compared with conventional methods, this approach does not alter the relative risk estimates but reduces the variances attributed to them and permits comparisons between groups. This is generally the case in the text. The proportion of joint replacements in England attributable to BMI were calculated using the relative risks estimated here and BMI in females 50—69 yrs old obtained from the Health Survey for England, [ 19 ].
We also examined the risk of height and BMI on hip and knee replacement in various subgroups to determine if the effects were modified by other factors and conducted a sensitivity analysis by excluding those who reported osteoarthritis at baseline to determine if this altered the effect of height and BMI. Results A total of women were eligible for the study with an average of 2.
There were women who reported a first incident hip replacement and who reported a first incident knee replacement giving rates of 1. For single frequency BIA, two electrodes are generally located on the right ankle and the right wrist of an individual.
The impedance is related to the volume of a conductor the human body and the square of the length of the conductor, a distance which is a function of the height of the subject. Before analysis, all participants were asked to observe the following pretest guidelines: Statistical Analysis All of the continuous variable data were reported as medians and IQRs, and the categorical data were reported as numbers and percentages.
The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare differences between characteristics and gender. Age was divided into three groups 18—39 years, 40—60 years, and over 60 years. Multiple linear regression analysis was first used, followed by an examination of the possibility of a nonlinear relationship existing by including quadratic and cubic forms.
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All reports of were two-sided and less than 0. Figure 1 shows the relationship between average BMI and age. It was found that, from the age of 18 to 39 years, the mean BMI increases as age increases but, after reaching 60 years of age, the mean BMI decreases as age increases see Figure 1 a. The reverse can be found for the relationship between mean HWDI and age.
HWDI and body-fat percentage in relation to age and gender. InGallagher et al. In addition, the SEE values derived from this study were similar to, yet higher than, those of some other studies [ 1629 ].
In addition, it is a quick and simple method that does not require a great deal of training to utilize. In the study using the same set of data, Juntaping et al. In this study, the obesity was proportionately higher in women than men, which is in accordance with previous studies which showed a higher risk of obesity in women both globally and in Asia [ 133132 ].
This may be due to differences in eating and exercising behaviors from men, as well as physical attributes, hormones, and metabolism [ 33 — 35 ]. It is evident that New-HWDI compares well with BMI and is likely to classify obesity status with a lower proportion of underestimated values in some age groups.
However, obesity screening of the elderly may be less adequate compared to younger people because the former may have less muscle but more body fat, and they may have osteoporosis, which is often found in inhabitants of low or middle-low income countries, especially in women [ 3637 ].
This supports our findings that HWDI could be used as a way to deal with the limitations of BMI in identifying obesity in intermediate ranges.
This has resulted in an easier means to evaluate obesity, thus aiding the monitoring of high-risk groups in the population so as to avoid problems associated with it. Consent All participants provided written informed consent prior to participation in this study. Disclosure This research received no specific grant from any funding agency and commercial or not-for-profit sectors.