Islam and Science > Islam and modern science - Islamic Library
Islam and Science – Introduction Khurshid Ahmad gives us a clear statement regarding the connection between Islam and Science: “The basic Islamic concept . questioning within the world of Islam and beyond.' - Edward W. Said, Columbia Universily. Islam and Science explores the relationship between scientific. Islam and modern scientific facts in Urdu (اسلام اور جدید سائنسی حقائق) and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bad ideologies as.
Alchemists supposed that gold was the noblest metal, and that other metals formed a series down to the basest, such as lead. They believed, too, that a fifth element, the elixir, could transform a base metal into gold. Jabir ibn Hayyan 8th—9th centuries wrote on alchemy, based on his own experiments.
He described laboratory techniques and experimental methods that would continue to be used when alchemy had transformed into chemistry. Ibn Hayyan identified many substances including sulphuric and nitric acids. He described processes such as sublimationreduction and distillation. He made use of equipment such as the alembic and the retort stand. Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Cosmology in medieval Islam Astronomy was a major discipline within Islamic science.
Effort was devoted both towards understanding the nature of the cosmos and to practical purposes. One of these was determining the Qibla, the direction in which to pray. Another was astrologypredicting events affecting human life and selecting suitable times for actions such as going to war or founding a city.
He contributed to the Tables of Toledoused by astronomers to predict the movements of the sun, moon and planets across the sky.
Some of his astronomic tables were later used by Copernicus. He constructed a water clock in Toledo. He discovered that the Sun's apogee moves slowly relative to the fixed stars, and obtained a good estimate of its motion  for its rate of change. Change in any text would have prevented us from establishing their total conformity with modern knowledge. It spanned two periods of almost equal length on either side of the Hijrah.
In view of this, it was natural for reflections having a scientific aspect to be scattered throughout the Book.
Science in the medieval Islamic world
In a study, such as the one we have made, we had to regroup the verses according to subject matter, collecting them chapter by chapter. How should they be classified?
It would seem to me, that the first subject to deal with is Creation. Here it is possible to compare the verses referring to this topic with the general ideas prevalent today on the formation of the Universe. Next, I divided up verses under the following general headings: This has been done in the cases of Creation, the Flood and the Exodus.
Islam and Science
The reason that these topics were chosen is that knowledge acquired today can be used in the interpretation of the texts. This idea contradicts the parallels which are often wrongly drawn by Western authors to emphasize the resemblance between the two texts. To stress only the similarities, while silently ignoring the obvious dissimilarities, is to distort reality.
There is, perhaps, a reason for this. It refers both to the heavens before the earth and the earth before the heavens, when it talks of creation in general, as in this verse of chapter Taa Haa: As well as descriptions of the elements which, although at first were fused together ratqthey subsequently became separated fatq. These ideas are expressed in chapters Fussilat and al-Anbiyaa: In contrast, the successive phases of creation mentioned in the Biblical text are totally unacceptable.
For example, in Genesis 1: It is a well known fact that our planet came from its own star, the sun. Such a claim would mean that, of his own accord, he corrected the Biblical text to arrive at the correct concept concerning the formation of the Universe. Yet the correct concept was reached by scientists many centuries after his death. But, this is a mistaken idea resulting from an ignorance of history. The material on this subject is so vast that I can only provide a brief outline of it here.
The Sun and Moon. It was much later discovered that stars are heavenly bodies producing their own light like the sun. Galaxies are balanced by the position of stars and planets in well-defined orbits, as well as the interplay of gravitational forces produced by their masses and the speed of their movements.
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In chapter al-Ambiyaa we find: Each one is traveling in an orbit with its own motion. They are well known for the moon, but less widely known for the sun. It is not until man landed on the moon and observed the earth spinning on its axis, that the dark half of the globe appeared to wind itself around the light and the light half appeared to wind itself around the dark. Modern astronomy confirms that the solar system is indeed moving in space at a rate of 12 miles per second towards a point situated in the constellation of Hercules alpha lyrae whose exact location has been precisely calculated.
Astronomers have even give it a name, the solar apex. The regular movement of the galactic light towards the red section of the spectrum is explained by the distancing of one galaxy from another. Thus, the size of the universe appears to be progressively increasing. You will not penetrate them except with authority. They deal, not only with the physical phenomena observed here on earth, but also with details concerning the living organisms that inhabit it.
At this point, we must ask ourselves the following question: How could an uneducated man in the middle of the desert accurately tackle so many and such varied subjects at a time when mythology and superstition reigned supreme?Zabta e Hayat - Topic - Islam Aur Science - ARY Qtv
How could he so skillfully avoid every belief that was proven to be totally inaccurate many centuries later? Water Cycle The verses dealing with the earthly systems are a case in point. This is a topic which is well known today. But if we consider the ideas prevalent at that time, they appear to be based more on myth and philosophical speculation than on observed fact, even though useful practical knowledge on soil irrigation was current at that period.
Let us examine, for example, the following verse in chapter az-Zumar: It was not until the sixteenth century, with Bernard Palissy, that we gained the first coherent description of the water cycle. Prior to this, people believed that the waters of the oceans, under the effect of winds, were thrust towards the interior of the continents.
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In the seventeenth century, great thinkers such as Descartes still believed in this myth. Today, we know that it is the infiltration of rain water into the ground that is responsible for this.
Mountains In geology, modern science has recently discovered the phenomenon of folding which formed the mountain ranges. It has also been discovered that the stability of mountains is linked to the phenomenon of folding.
Here, as in the case of all the other topics presented, the objective observer cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction to modern knowledge.
We should really devote much more time to this subject, but, due to the limited scope of this presentation, I can only give a few examples. It is for this reason that scientists find some of their interpretations unacceptable.
Islam and Science
There are also other verses whose obvious meanings are easily understood, but which conceal scientific meanings which are startling, to say the least. This is the case of a verse in chapter al-Ambiyaa, a part of which has already been quoted: Will they still not believe? Botany Progress in botany at the time of Muhammad S was not advanced enough in any country for scientists to know that plants have both male and female parts.
Nevertheless, we may read the following in the chapter Taa Haa: To understand this verse, it must first be known that chemical reactions occur between food and enzymes in the mouth, the stomach and the intestines releasing nutrients in molecular form which are then absorbed into the circulatory system through countless microscopic projections of the intestinal wall called villi. Blood in the circulatory system then transports the nutrients to all the organs of the body, among which are the milk-producing mammary glands.
Today it is not difficult to see why! This verse is taken from the chapter an-Nahl: I give you drink from their insides, coming from a conjunction between the digested contents of the intestines and the blood, milk pure and pleasant for those who drink it.
The initial event which sets the whole process in motion is the conjunction of the contents of the intestine and blood at the level of the intestinal wall itself.
This very precise concept is the result of the discoveries made in the chemistry and physiology of the digestive system over one thousand years after the time of Prophet Muhammad S. It was impossible for a human being living in the early seventh century to have accurately expressed such ideas.
There is nothing to indicate that people in the Middle-East and Arabia knew anything more about this subject than people living in Europe or anywhere else.
Your books on sex-education are a bit late on the scene! Fertilization Let us now isolate, from all these verses, precise ideas concerning the complexity of the semen and the fact that an infinitely small quantity is required to ensure fertilization.
The verse correctly implies that fertilization is performed by only a very small volume of liquid. On the other hand, mingled fluids amshaaj has been understood by early commentators to refer to the mixture of male and female discharges.
Modern authors have corrected this view and note that the sperm is made up of various components. This is the meaning of the following verse in chapter as-Sajdah: In whatever way it is translated, it refers to part of a whole.
Under normal conditions, only one single cell, spermatozoon, out of over 50 million ejaculated by a man during sexual intercourse will actually penetrate the ovule. Implantation Once the egg has been fertilized in the fallopian tube, it descends to lodge itself inside the uterus.
Implantation is a result of the development of villosities, which, like roots in the soil, draw nourishment from the wall of the uterus and make the egg literally cling to the womb.
It is a derivative meaning which is not as appropriate in this context.