Thus, motivated employees are one of the most important results of The interrelationship between these three levels is depicted in Figure employee performance. The purpose of this correlational research was to examine the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation in public. Research on motivation and leadership continued for many years with little Others argue that much employee motivation is actually out of a.
A great variety of theories of motivation exist, and a correspondingly great number of leadership theories have been developed, some we can discuss elsewhere on this forum.
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It is most likely that leadership behaviour will affect more proximal and processual aspects of motivation, making these theories more likely to inform. In terms of leadership, path-goal theory, and theories of transformation versus transactional leadership, have taken over from some of the earlier ideas.
However, I will leave the theory for another day, and concentrate right now on two types of leadership — those at the top of the organization, and those in charge of teams: De Vries argues for links between top leaders and high performing organizations, although little robust empirical work is cited.
Some suggest these outcomes are partly due to Transformational forms of Leadership, although the links are unclear, and even the more academic research has serious weaknesses.
It is possible the outcomes considered are too far removed from the construct of motivation, perhaps the results will be clearer if we consider teams? Others argue that substitutes for leadership can make a leaders role unnecessary, however research indicates that leader effects are not neutralised, suggesting an emotional bond with a leader cannot be replaced in Chemers Research from a Social Exchange perspective suggests particular forms of team leadership can empower subordinates, which leads to increased satisfaction and fairness perceptions, and improved performance.
There is also evidence of a significant relationship between delegation and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Deci argues that social influence strategies can attenuate intrinsic motivation; if one accepts a definition of leadership as a social influence process this suggests a positive influence for leadership.
Yet there is evidence that non-contingent rewards and punishment are ineffective and may demotivate The above evidence, although mixed, does suggest potential negative and positive effects of leadership on follower motivation, however, most of the cited research is correlational, therefore no causal direction can be proven, constructs are often ambiguous, and many studies are weakened by attributional biases.
Perhaps difficulties with finding evidence are due to there being no leadership impact on motivation at all?Improving Motivation with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Some argue that leadership is purely an explanatory category, used after the event, due to attributional and prototype processes and a need for causal and controlling principles. It is suggested that leadership, in reality, has no direct impact. Others suggests this argument is misplaced, as it is just as likely attributions of outcomes to leadership is widespread because of direct experience of leadership effects.
However, the evidence suggests leadership is often attributed after the event, Steers et al. Others argue that much employee motivation is actually out of a leaders control Shamir et. The next article will consider this aspect. For example, for using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, sub-categories II, IS, IC, IM would correlate higher with transformational leadership style while Cr, MEa would correlate higher with transactional leadership style and MEp, Lf would correlate higher with laissez-faire leadership style.
The similar method was applied on motivation and team-climate questionnaires based on their sub-categories. Correlation values of 0. Dataset was transferred to Stata software version All variables with 4-point Likert scales were collapsed into dichotomous variables to simplify analysis of the highly skewed responses on the 4-point Likert scale, and for better visualization of the results.
We reversed responses to negative items so that higher scores indicate disagreement to these statements. We conducted 2 separate factor analyses to identify and confirm latent variables reported by the different questionnaires used. Exploratory factor analysis was done to identify latent variables reported by job satisfaction questionnaire and confirmatory factor analysis was done to confirm the latent factors reported.
Five latent factors were identified from the job satisfaction questionnaire, while 11 latent factors of Mulitifactor Leadership Questionnaire, 4 of Team Climate Inventory, as well as 5 of the motivation questionnaire were confirmed. Descriptive statistics including frequency and percentage were computed for all variables along with inferential statistics methods to include simple correlation to evaluate the correlations between leadership styles and job-related attributes motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork and multiple logistic regression to assess the relationships between components of each leadership style as independent variables and job-related attributes as dependent ones.
Following an explanation of the study, health workers who agreed to participate in the study completed the survey questionnaires anonymously and returned them to the research assistant at the end of the day. Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of sampled health facilities Abbreviation: Though laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated with motivation, job satisfaction, and team work, this was not statistically significant.
Table 3 Correlations between leadership styles and worker-related behaviors among health workers in Uganda Notes: Table 4 Logistic regression of components of each leadership style with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork Notes: Discussion Much as extensive research has been made on the relationship between leadership styles and job-related behaviors in health care, 31 — 33 there is limited research on exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings like Uganda.
Results from this study indicate that health workers in Uganda preferred leaders who were transformational compared with being transactional or laissez-faire. Staff motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork were positively correlated with transformational leadership whereas only staff job satisfaction and teamwork were positively correlated with transactional leadership. Motivated staff was positively associated with leaders who exhibited II behavior and attributed but negatively associated with those who exhibited management by exception.
Job satisfaction was positively associated with only IS. Teamwork was positively associated with II behavior and attributed and Cr. The study was able to conclude that the more transformational the health facility manager was, the more motivated, satisfied, and team-spirited the health worker subordinates will be compared with those whose health facility managers were transactional or laissez-faire.
[Full text] Relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, jo | JHL
This finding was consistent with a study in Jimma University Hospital, which found that staff nurses preferred leaders with transformational rather than transactional styles. Facilities whose leaders adopt transformational leadership have the ability to motivate their staff compared with those whose leaders adopted transactional leadership.
Specifically, facility leaders who were seen to exhibit management by exception behavior were less likely to motivate their subordinates. In Uganda today, motivating workers who are poorly paid and work in difficult circumstances is still challenging. These findings were consistent with a study in Ethiopia, 8 which found that, of all transformational leadership dimensions, the beta coefficients of IS had the strongest correlation with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction.
This could be because leaders who display IS assist followers to develop new ideas, and motivate them to take alternative routes to problem solving. This finding is consistent with a study in the Netherlands that realized that much as the teams flourished under a leader who was more charismatic and approachable compared with one who was mostly displaying transactional leadership traits, a mixed leadership is regarded as the most effective.
Working environment in most of the health facilities in Uganda is considered to be dynamic and constantly changing, 37 therefore the leadership style should be mixed and the leader should have the ability to adapt to a style fitting to the occurring situation.
This study was consistent with a report of a rewards project in Uganda which, according to its project manager, had registered improved performance, targets achievement, and an enhanced balance between functions and roles. We used a large sample size health workers, which was collapsed to health facilities and a high response rate Findings should be interpreted with caution in view of the following limitation: This creates some form of selection bias because respondents who agreed to participate may be friendly to in-charge who selected them or if the in-charge was not involved, are more inclined to respond positively due to social desirability bias.
Second, in bigger facilities Health Center IVs and hospitals with many health workers, three health workers may not be representative of all the health workers in the health facility. Third, considering the complexity of the socially determined constructs job satisfaction, motivation, and teamworkthe use of a single item to measure it might be disputable.
There may be other moderating factors, such as professional backgrounds, family demands, work condition and climate, patient load, mandatory overtime, shifts, and unit type, income, and age.
What is the relationship between leadership and Motivation?
Fourth, because we used a cross-sectional design, we only took measures once and relied on self-administered questionnaires that may lead to bias, so no causal relationship can be inferred. Finally, validity of these questionnaires was not exhaustively checked in this paper as we could only manage to check for convergent validity. Conclusion Findings from this study show that even in resource-constrained settings, transformational leadership style is exhibited much more than transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles.
The study further found that leaders who demonstrated transformational skills had a positive impact on stimulating motivation, assuring job satisfaction, and consolidating teamwork among health workers compared with those who demonstrated transactional skills.
Leaders who demonstrated laissez-faire characteristics had a negative effect on consolidating teamwork among health workers. Further studies could evaluate other mediating factors that bring about this effect, assess the benefits, challenges, and financial implications of developing innovative leadership styles in resource-limited health settings, especially in regions facing a high shortage of health workers.
Results from this study can be used to better inform policy makers who want to address issues of staff retention. These results indicate that any health worker who can emulate these leadership skills, can enhance fellow staff motivation, job satisfaction, and encourage teamwork. Availability of data and materials All the data supporting the presented findings is contained within the manuscript.
The dataset that was used to write this manuscript has been submitted alongside other supplementary documents.