Public Finance and Private Finance | Economy Watch
should not determine the difference between the private and public sphere of the economy by definition, but that a theory of public ex- penditures should help us. The relationship between public and private financing of culture in the EU examples that can be found within the EU member states as for the arrangements . The definition of Public Finance by U.K. Hicks in Public Finance highlights the satisfaction of policies and their socio-economic impact, inter-governmental financial relations, fiscal Distinguish between public finance and private finance.
The main focus of the GFSM is the general government sector defined as the group of entities capable of implementing public policy through the provision of primarily non market goods and services and the redistribution of income and wealthwith both activities supported mainly by compulsory levies on other sectors.
The GFSM disaggregates the general government into subsectors: The concept of general government does not include public corporations. The general government plus the public corporations comprise the public sector See Figure 2. It fulfils the two following criteria: The GFSM framework is similar to the financial accounting of businesses.
For example, it recommends that governments produce a full set of financial statements including the statement of government operations akin to the income statementthe balance sheetand a cash flow statement.
Two other similarities between the GFSM and business financial accounting are the recommended use of accrual accounting as the basis of recording and the presentations of stocks of assets and liabilities at market value. Users of GFS[ edit ] The GFSM recommends standard tables including standard fiscal indicators that meet a broad group of users including policy makers, researchers, and investors in sovereign debt.
Government finance statistics should offer data for topics such as the fiscal architecture, the measurement of the efficiency and effectiveness of government expenditures, the economics of taxation, and the structure of public financing.
The GFSM provides a blueprint for the compilation, recording, and presentation of revenues, expenditures, stocks of assets, and stocks of liabilities.
This functional classification allows policy makers to analyze expenditures on categories such as health, education, social protection, and environmental protection. The financial statements can provide investors with the necessary information to assess the capacity of a government to service and repay its debt, a key element determining sovereign risk, and risk premia.
Like the risk of default of a private corporation, sovereign risk is a function of the level of debt, its ratio to liquid assets, revenues and expenditures, the expected growth and volatility of these revenues and expenditures, and the cost of servicing the debt.
Public finance - Wikipedia
The memorandum items of the balance sheet provide additional information on the debt including its maturity and whether it is owed to domestic or external residents. It also studies the casual relationship between facts relating to revenue and expenditure of the government. Plehn has advanced the following arguments in favour of public finance being science: Public finance is not a complete knowledge about human rather it is concerned with definite and limited field of human knowledge.
Public finance is a systematic study of the facts and principles relating to government revenue and expenditure. Scientific methods are used to study public finance. Principles of public finance are empirical.
Science is of two types: In positive science one knows about factual situation or facts as they are. As against it, normative science presents norms or ideals.
Difference Between Public Finance and Private Finance
Public finance is therefore, a positive science. Study of public finance also reveals what should be the quantum of taxes. Which taxes, direct or indirect, should be imposed. This, however, is not true. Dissimilarities between Public Finance and Private Finance: There are some basic differences between private and public finance.
- Public finance
- Public Finance and Private Finance: Similarities and Dissimilarities
- Public Finance and Private Finance
Some of the important differences are: The objectives are different by the very nature of public and private finance. The government has to set an objective standard of utility from given public expenditure while an individual fixes a subjective standard of utility from his given personal expenditure.
Again, an individual or a firm is mainly concerned with present profits and prospects, not with that of the distant future. But the government has to serve society generation after generation. In other words, government is not guided by the profit motive; it is mainly concerned with the general interest of the society.
An individual is myopic in the long run, and that is why he attaches more importance to the present period than to the future. On the other hand, since government regards itself as a trustee for the future, it makes provisions not only for present period but also for posterity. An individual adjusts his expenditure to income while the state adjusts income to expenditure.
Meaning, Nature and Scope of Public Finance - Free BCom Notes
An individual usually prepares his family budget in accordance with the income that he expects to receive. Income is, thus, the crucial determinant of individual budget. On the other hand, the government usually prepares its budget of expenditures and then searches wherefrom it can raise the required funds to meet the expenditures.
Thus, expenditure is the crucial determinant of public budget. In view of this difference, it is said that in private finance the coat is cut according to the cloth available, while in public finance the opposite happens—the size of the coat is determined first and then the authorities set out to gather the necessary cloth through taxation, borrowing and deficit financing. However, there may arise some situations in which an individual may also adjust his expenditure to income—like the government.meaning and scope of public finance
In case of unforeseen emergencies, an individual may have to spend more than what he receives from current income. Under the circumstances, he will have to work harder and sacrifice leisure or to borrow money from different sources to supplement his present income.