The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands
The hypothalamus makes up the lower region of the diencephalon and lies just The pituitary gland consists of two major regions: the anterior pituitary gland. Describe the physiologic and anatomic relationships between the hypothalamus and the anterior and the posterior pituitary. Understand the integration of. You have your hypothalamus and pituitary gland to thank. The pituitary consists of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe, each of which have.
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They are the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. Antidiuretic hormone reabsorbs water from the kidney. Oxytocin contracts the uterus during the childbirth and releases breast milk. The other type of hormones may contain inhibitory or stimulating actions on the secondary endocrine organs of the body.
These hormones are sent to the anterior pituitary gland for the secretion. What is Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland is the major endocrine gland, which is attached to the base of the brain and controls the production and release of hormones from other endocrine glands.
Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland | Definition, Anatomy, Physiology
The two lobes of the pituitary gland are called the anterior pituitary adenohypophysis and the posterior pituitary neurohypophysis. The anterior pituitary comprises glandular cells. The posterior pituitary gland comprises nerve cells. The structure of the pituitary gland is shown in figure 2. Posterior pituitary secretes the hormones produced in the hypothalamus.
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glands
The secretions of the other endocrine glands are regulated by the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Therefore, the pituitary gland is called the master gland of the body. It regulates the secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland, thyroid glandhypothalamus, thymuspineal gland, pancreas, and gonads.
Through these hormones, growth, development, metabolismblood pressure, sexual maturation, and reproduction are controlled. The posterior lobe contains the ends of nerve cells coming from the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus sends hormones directly to the posterior lobe via these nerves, and then the pituitary gland releases them. This hormone prompts the kidneys to increase water absorption in the blood. Oxytocin is involved in a variety of processes, such as contracting the uterus during childbirth and stimulating breast milk production.
Diseases and Disorders of the Pituitary Gland Pituitary tumors are the most common pituitary disorder, and many adults have them. However, they are not, in the great majority of cases, life-threatening.
There are two types of pituitary tumors—secretory and non-secretory. These hormonal imbalances can cause problems in many different areas of the body. If you have a secretory tumor that is overproducing thyroid-stimulating hormone, for instance, you will experience hyperthyroidism.
Another pituitary disorder is known as pituitary apoplexy.Posterior Pituitary Gland
The posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis is not a separate organ, but an extension of the hypothalamus. It is composed largely of the axons of hypothalamic neurons which extend downward as a large bundle behind the anterior pituitary.
Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
It also forms the so-called pituitary stalk, which appears to suspend the anterior gland from the hypothalamus. The image to the right shows a frontal view of a pig pituitary gland and hypothalamus.
The posterior gland can be seen peeking out behind the anterior gland; pass your mouse cursor over the image for labels image courtesy of Dr. The anterior and posterior pituitary have separate embryological origins. In many mammals, there is also an intermediate lobe pars intermedia between the anterior and posterior pituitary.
A key to understanding the endocrine relationship between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is to appreciate the vascular connections between these organs.