The present study examined how the level of trait anxiety, which is a The difference scores of the STAI-state anxiety of all participants were. By differentiating between state and trait anxiety, the relationship between these two State anxiety is the transitory emotional state or condition of the human. The relations of stress, trait anxiety, and state anxiety with cognitive rapidly as a function of trait anxiety under stressful circumstances than neutral or rel atively.
Examples Many people experience anxiety before speaking in public. For most people, these feelings of anxiety start before they begin speaking, continue during the speech but subside immediately after the speech ends. This is an example of state anxiety. Differences in how strong the feeling of anxiety is in different people when they are confronted with a public speaking engagement constitutes one measure of trait anxiety.
For instance, one person may feel only slightly nervous whereas another may feel faint and nauseated.
In addition, some people with a high level of trait anxiety experience anxious feelings in many different situations that do not evoke anxiety in most people.
Everyday examples include seeing a dog in a fenced yard or crossing an intersection with traffic. Psychiatric Disorders State and trait anxiety are concepts that also apply to the anxiety that occurs in psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety disorders.
A phobia represents an intense feeling of anxiety or fear that is associated with a specific event or object, such as a snake, spider or high place. Phobias represent types of state anxiety. Once the feared event or object is not present or forgotten, the person no longer experiences anxiety. Individuals who do not feel competent to cope with challenging demands, harbor self-doubts and worry.
Thus, they are more anxious. However, the construct of depression is clearly distinct from the construct of anxiety, since the latter is a response to perceived threat whereas the former is a response to perceived harm or loss Lazarus, A stress response may include anxiety but not necessarily so Endler, Stress is commonly understood in one of three ways: According to the first view, anxiety follows the critical event e.
According to the second view, anxiety is part of the response pattern. According to the third view, anxiety is an accompanying emotion.
MacArthur SES & Health Network | Research
Due to the many different conceptualizations of anxiety, it does not come as a surprise to find several thousand publications that seem to contradict each other.
This does not mean that it is an ideal measure but it is the most frequently used scale in research world-wide, and no other measure has received as many foreign language adaptations and citations in the last three decades. Thus, it is the standard in the field.
The self-report inventory consists of 20 items to assess state anxiety, and another 20 items to assess trait anxiety. These two parts differ in the item wording, in the response format intensity vs. Relation to SES Trait anxiety is on average higher among lower social class individuals than among middle class individuals Lewis, ; Lenzi et al.
Stress in the relation between trait and state anxiety.
Relation to Health Trait anxiety has been found related to health. However, the association between these two variables is much more complex. Anxiety can be the cause of illness, or anxiety can be an effect of illness. This is usually labelled "somatization. In addition to somatization, another effect of anxiety is health risk behavior.
Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations
Anxious individuals delay health care seeking, they avoid screenings that might produce unfavorable or threatening information. This is the case, for example, in HIV testing or mammography screenings. A third effect of anxiety lies in self-reports of ill health. Anxious individuals complain more frequently about ill health, they seek medical attention and put a strain on their social networks and on the health care system.
For example, they report more symptoms allegedly due to dental amalgam fillings. Stress leads to elevated levels of state anxiety and blood pressure, disposing patients, in turn, to worse conditions. Stress can be represented by distinct "stressors" such as natural disasters, accidents, migration, divorce, unemployment, surgery, or disease.
Following these events or conditions, persons develop patterns of emotional distress, including anxiety and depression. Anxiety following a myocardial infarct is an example Dew et al. Such an emotional response of clinical significance is found, for example, in posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD after experiencing a severe trauma. Thus, anxiety can be considered a mediator between stressful life events and ill health. Emotional reactions following stress may develop into a spiral of effects.
Psychological interventions are needed to interrupt this deleterious process.Generalized anxiety disorder and coping strategies
Social support and professional help can buffer the effect and restabilize the person, so no physical health care will be necessary. In sum, anxiety is related to ill health in a number of ways.
Unfortunately, most of the research is correlational and cross-sectional which does not allow us to uncover the causal mechanisms involved in this relationship Schwarzer, Prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety-related disorders during the year after heart transplantation.