Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory
Relationships often develop through a series of stages, as described by Devito ( ). and impersonal. It may also be ritualized, such as saying hello and talking about bland subjects such as work or the weather. . Learning stage theories. His theory, called "Tuckman's Stages" was based on research he conducted As the team begins to work together, they move into the "storming" stage. . Positive, supportive working relationships among all team members. An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between . During this stage, interpersonal relationships are considered to be more This theory is based on the idea that relationships develop as a result of .. events in an interpersonal context to work toward flourishing relationships.
They not only recognize that problems exist in their thinking, but they also recognize the need to attack these problems globally and systematically. Based on their sense of the need to practice regularly, they are actively analyzing their thinking in a number of domains. However, since practicing thinkers are only beginning to approach the improvement of their thinking in a systematic way, they still have limited insight into deeper levels of thought, and thus into deeper levels of the problems embedded in thinking.
To begin to develop awareness of the need for systematic practice in thinking. Practicing thinkers, unlike beginning thinkers are becoming knowledgeable of what it would take to systematically monitor the role in their thinking of concepts, assumptions, inferences, implications, points of view, etc.
Practicing thinkers are also becoming knowledgeable of what it would take to regularly assess their thinking for clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness, etc. Practicing thinkers recognize the need for systematicity of critical thinking and deep internalization into habits. They clearly recognize the natural tendency of the human mind to engage in egocentric thinking and self-deception.
Practicing thinkers have enough skill in thinking to critique their own plan for systematic practice, and to construct a realistic critique of their powers of thought. Furthermore, practicing thinkers have enough skill to begin to regularly monitor their own thoughts. Thus they can effectively articulate the strengths and weaknesses in their thinking. Practicing thinkers can often recognize their own egocentric thinking as well as egocentric thinking on the part of others.
Furthermore practicing thinkers actively monitor their thinking to eliminate egocentric thinking, although they are often unsuccessful. The key intellectual trait required to move to this stage is intellectual perseverance.
Furthermore, thinkers at this stage have the intellectual humility required to realize that thinking in all the domains of their lives must be subject to scrutiny, as they begin to approach the improvement of their thinking in a systematic way. What are the basic features of thinking that students must command to effectively become practicing thinkers? What do they need to do to take charge of their thinking intellectually, with respect to any content?Skills for Healthy Romantic Relationships - Joanne Davila - TEDxSBU
We must teach in such a way that students come to understand the power in knowing that whenever humans reason, they have no choice but to use certain predictable structures of thought: We must teach in such a way as to require students to regularly deal explicitly with these structures more on these structure presently.
The result of this emphasis in instruction is that students begin to see connections between all the subject matter they are learning. In studying history, they learn to focus on historical purposes and questions. When studying math, they clarify and analyze mathematical goals and problems. When studying literature, they reflect upon literary purposes and questions.
Theories of Interpersonal Relationship
They notice themselves making historical, mathematical, and literary assumptions. They notice themselves tracing historical, mathematical, and literary implications. Recognizing the "moves" one makes in thinking well is an essential part of becoming a practicing thinker.
Students should be encouraged to routinely catch themselves thinking both egocentrically and sociocentrically. The Advanced Thinker Defining Feature: While advanced thinkers are able to think well across the important dimensions of their lives, they are not yet able to think at a consistently high level across all of these dimensions.
Advanced thinkers have good general command over their egocentric nature. They continually strive to be fair-minded. Of course, they sometimes lapse into egocentrism and reason in a one-sided way. To begin to develop depth of understanding not only of the need for systematic practice in thinking, but also insight into deep levels of problems in thought: Advanced thinkers are actively and successfully engaged in systematically monitoring the role in their thinking of concepts, assumptions, inferences, implications, points of view, etc.
Advanced thinkers are also knowledgeable of what it takes to regularly assess their thinking for clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness, etc.
Advanced thinkers value the deep and systematic internalization of critical thinking into their daily habits. Advanced thinkers have keen insight into the role of egocentrism and sociocentrism in thinking, as well as the relationship between thoughts, feelings and desires. They have a deep understanding of the powerful role that thinking plays in the quality of their lives.
They understand that egocentric thinking will always play a role in their thinking, but that they can control the power that egocentrism has over their thinking and their lives. Advanced thinkers regularly critique their own plan for systematic practice, and improve it thereby.
Practicing thinkers regularly monitor their own thoughts. They insightfully articulate the strengths and weaknesses in their thinking. They possess outstanding knowledge of the qualities of their thinking. Advanced thinkers are consistently able to identify when their thinking is driven by their native egocentrism; and they effectively use a number of strategies to reduce the power of their egocentric thoughts.
In addition the thinker at this level needs: In the advanced thinker these traits are emerging, but may not be manifested at the highest level or in the deepest dimensions of thought.
Nevertheless, it is important that they learn what it would be to become an advanced thinker. It is important that they see it as an important goal. We can help students move in this direction by fostering their awareness of egocentrism and sociocentrism in their thinking, by leading discussions on intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity, intellectual empathy, intellectual courage, and fair-mindedness. If we can graduate students who are practicing thinkers, we will have achieved a major break-through in schooling.
However intelligent our graduates may be, most of them are largely unreflective as thinkers, and are unaware of the disciplined habits of thought they need to develop to grow intellectually as a thinker. The Accomplished Thinker Defining Feature: Accomplished thinkers not only have systematically taken charge of their thinking, but are also continually monitoring, revising, and re-thinking strategies for continual improvement of their thinking.
They have deeply internalized the basic skills of thought, so that critical thinking is, for them, both conscious and highly intuitive. As Piaget would put it, they regularly raise their thinking to the level of conscious realization. Through extensive experience and practice in engaging in self-assessment, accomplished thinkers are not only actively analyzing their thinking in all the significant domains of their lives, but are also continually developing new insights into problems at deeper levels of thought.
Accomplished thinkers are deeply committed to fair-minded thinking, and have a high level of, but not perfect, control over their egocentric nature.
Knapp's Relational Development Model
To internalize highly effective critical thinking in an interdisciplinary and practical way. Accomplished thinkers are not only actively and successfully engaged in systematically monitoring the role in their thinking of concepts, assumptions, inferences, implications, points of view, etc.
Accomplished thinkers have not only a high degree of knowledge of thinking, but a high degree of practical insight as well. Accomplished thinkers intuitively assess their thinking for clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, logicalness, etc.
Accomplished thinkers have deep insights into the systematic internalization of critical thinking into their habits. Accomplished thinkers deeply understand the role that egocentric and sociocentric thinking plays in the lives of human beings, as well as the complex relationship between thoughts, emotions, drives and behavior. Accomplished thinkers regularly, effectively, and insightfully critique their own use of thinking in their lives, and improve it thereby. Accomplished thinkers consistently monitor their own thoughts.
They effectively and insightfully articulate the strengths and weaknesses inherent in their thinking. Their knowledge of the qualities of their thinking is outstanding. Although, as humans they know they will always be fallible because they must always battle their egocentrism, to some extentthey consistently perform effectively in every domain of their lives.
People of good sense seek out master thinkers, for they recognize and value the ability of master thinkers to think through complex issues with judgment and insight. Naturally inherent in master thinkers are all the essential intellectual characteristics, deeply integrated. Accomplished thinkers have a high degree of intellectual humility, intellectual integrity, intellectual perseverance, intellectual courage, intellectual empathy, intellectual autonomy, intellectual responsibility and fair-mindedness.
Egocentric and sociocentric thought is quite uncommon in the accomplished thinker, especially with respect to matters of importance. Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth. They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e.
This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual. Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships. One reason cited for divorce is infidelity.
The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators. Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship.
Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends. Individuals in long-distance relationshipsLDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs. LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days.
Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs.
Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction.
Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships.
Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills. Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior. Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing.
Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life.
Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity. Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous. Dismissing individuals are low on anxiety over abandonment and high in avoidance of intimacy.
Dismissing people are usually self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy and are independent and indifferent towards acquiring romantic partners.
They are very fearful of rejection, mistrustful of others, and tend to be suspicious and shy in everyday life. Attachment styles are created during childhood but can adapt and evolve to become a different attachment style based on individual experiences. On the contrary, a good romantic relationship can take a person from an avoidant attachment style to more of a secure attachment style. Romantic love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world.
Attraction — Premeditated or automatic, attraction can occur between acquaintances, coworkers, lovers, etc. Studies have shown that attraction can be susceptible to influence based on context and externally induced arousal, with the caveat that participants be unaware of the source of their arousal.
A study by Cantor, J. As supported by a series of studies, Zillman and colleagues showed that a preexisting state of arousal can heighten reactions to affective stimuli. Relational damage Specific things may happen to damage the relationship, from simple broken promises to major betrayal. Arguments may break out, even over small things, in which hurtful things are said. Minor hurts may then be aggregated into major grievances which can fester and increase the divide.
Weakening bonds Even without major damage, the initially-strong bond may be eroded as the passion of the early relationship gives way to the humdrum of everyday existence. Living together or just seeing one another too often can result in having less and less to say. Familiarity may breed contempt, which is a major predictor of relationship breakdown.
Bonds may also be weakened by distractions such as work, hobbies and other relationships, no matter how harmless. When a person has less time for their partner and spends less time in maintaining the relationship then the strength of that relationship will wane. Repair When damage is done, all is not necessarily lost and if the people want the relationship to continue then there is opportunity for repair. Intrapersonal repair Each person alone can work on their own perceptions, perhaps with the help of friends and counselors, seeking to identify and draw out the poison within and so healing imagined wounds.
A part of this may include reflection on how the relationship used to be so good and how it has gone wrong. A difficulty here is in accepting one's own part in the breakdown, what reparation may be made and how the person may make permanent changes in how they behave.
Interpersonal repair The repair process may well also involve joint action that has to go beyond damaging blame and involve joint acceptance of responsibility. Done well, this may be cathartic and enlightening and can lead to an even stronger relationship. Done less well and the repair may only be temporary as one or each agrees to changes but does not engage in the intrapersonal repair that is needed to make it effective.
Dissolution Eventually at some point the relationship may dissolve or perhaps return to a more platonic level. Intrapersonal separation A part of this process is an internal separation where each person psychologically distances themselves from the other person, detaching their identity and seeing the other person as more distinct and individual.
This can be troublesome if not done well and hanging onto even a small part of the relationship can cause problems if this is not mutually agreed.