Environmental (Air, Water and Land) Pollution
knowledge about water, soil and air pollution and also providing strategies to prevent further damage. Pollutants: substances that contaminate air, water and or soil. . State the hypothesis that the learners set out to investigate. (2). Describe the relationship between the number of green algae and the condition of the. “Pollution” is any degradation of a larger environment by substances introduced to it externally. Abstract: Soil degradation and water pollution are widely recognized as major environ- The Relationship Between Soil and Water—How Soil Amendments and healthier plant growth will be sustained, and air and water will be held and . It takes a preliminary look into actions local and state governments can begin to.
The main sources of air pollution are harmful gases like sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and other suspended particles. Air pollution is usually caused by the burning of fossil fuels like petroleum and coal, burning of wood and cow dung cakes in homes, factories, vehicles and power plants. Among all other continents in the world, India is the country having the most number of polluted cities.
Lucknow, Kanpur, New Delhi are few among them and this is because of excessive use of fossil fuels by vehicles and other industrial units. Water pollution The contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, underground water and seas by harmful substances is known as water pollution.
Water, Air, and Soil
Polluted water becomes unfit for drinking, bathing, washing, and irrigation. The main cause of water pollution is sewage, industrial wastes, pesticides and fertilizers from farming.
Garbage dumping can also leak out pollutants into underground water. The major pollutants of water are usually lead, mercury, fertilizer and pesticide compounds. The major source of pollution of the Ganga River is sewage and industrial wastes from tanning factories.
Soil Pollution Soil pollution is the contamination of soil due to harmful substances. Polluted soil becomes unfit for growing crops and plants and is usually accompanied by water pollution.
The chief agent of environmental damage is acid deposition, or acid rain as it is commonly known. This phenomenon occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide SO2 and oxides of nitrogen NOx react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form various acidic compounds. These compounds then fall to the earth in either dry form such as gas and particles or wet form such as rain, snow, and fog. Thus, polluted air can damage trees directly in the dry form or indirectly through its affects on the chemistry of water and soils and by making trees more vulnerable to other biological and environmental stressors.
More specifically, acid rain weaken trees by damaging their leaves, limiting the nutrients available to them, or exposing them to toxic substances slowly released from the soil. Acid rain that flows into streams, lakes, and marshes also has serious ecological effects. In watersheds where soils do not have a buffering capacity, acid rain releases aluminum, which is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms, from soils into lakes and streams.
NRS scientists are study the problems of pollution at many levels, from cellular biochemistry to landscape-level ecology. A Method for Selecting Genotypes for Phytotechnologies The success of certain phytotechnologies has prompted the use of wastewaters as a combination of irrigation and fertilization for woody crops such Populus species and their hybrids i.
A common protocol for such efforts has been to utilize a limited number of readily-available genotypes with decades of deployment in other applications, such as fiber or windbreaks.
What are the similarities and differences between air and water pollution? | Socratic
However, it is possible to increase phytoremediation success with proper genotypic screening and selection, followed by the field establishment of clones that exhibited favorable potential for clean-up of specific contaminants.
While such efforts are limited for environmental remediation, centuries of plant selection success in agronomy, horticulture, and forestry validate the need for similar approaches in phytotechnologies.
Development of Improved Mycorrhizal Fungi for Use in Reforestation and Reclamation of Mined Lands We are testing several known mycorrhizal fungi for their ability and efficacy to support survival and growth of seedlings planted in reclaimed sites.
Every year we have been generating Virginia pine seedlings inoculated with various fungi and planting them in reclaimed abandoned mine site locations in Ohio. Qualitative and quantitative measurements are being made to assess fungi that aid survival and growth of seedlings. The materials released by AMD include heavy metals such as iron, aluminum, and manganeseother hazardous substances, and acidity that is harmful to aquatic life.
Improved economical methods are needed to remove these substances from water to prevent detrimental effects on forest health. Air Pollution and Sustainable Forest Ecosystems In our research, we monitor acidic deposition falling in the central Appalachians and study its effects as its moves through the forest, from tree canopy to the soil and soil solution to streams.
We are studying the effects on nutrient cycling, and tree growth and productivity, and on a number of other ecosystem components. Rapidly increasing fuel prices have resulted in an economic climate that favors domestic energy development. This is especially true in the mid- and northern-Appalachian region where the Marcellus shale formation is found in the bedrock. Red Leaf Color as an Indicator of Environmental Stress Vistas of colorful fall foliage hold tremendous public and media interest, and associated tourism to the Northern Forest is estimated to add billions of dollars to the regional economy each year.
This natural spectacle of diverse leaf coloration is based on the physiology of leaf pigments. In addition to its aesthetic value, the biology of one pigment anthocyanin may provide insights to how some trees survive environmental stress.
Acid Rain and Calcium Depletion Acid rain and other anthropogenic factors can leach calcium Ca from forest ecosystems and mobilize potentially toxic aluminum Al in soils. Considering the unique role Ca plays in the physiological response of cells to environmental stress, we propose that depletion of biological Ca would impair basic stress recognition and response systems, and predispose trees to exaggerated injury following exposure to other environmental stresses.
Producing short rotation woody crops for energy, fiber, and environmental benefits requires adequate irrigation and fertilization, which can be supplied via waste waters including landfill leachate.
Yet, leachate often contains elevated levels of salts such as chloride and sodium that cause leaf chlorosis and necrosis, decreased biomass accumulation, and increased mortality. Using Short Rotation Woody Crops to Remediate Soils Heavily Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons Organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are a major pollution source of surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediments throughout North America and the rest of the world.
The rhizosphere is the zone of soil surrounding plant roots. Utilization of plants and their rhizospheric microorganisms to destroy, remove, and stabilize contaminated soils is currently gaining global attention because such systems are efficient and effective from biological and economic standpoints. Sustainable Production of Woody Energy Crops with Associated Environmental Benefits Increasing human population levels at regional, national, and global scales have heightened the need for proper management of residential and industrial waste.
Contaminants from this waste stream have polluted water, air, and soil much faster than traditional technologies could remediate the problem. Therefore, we are combining intensive forestry and waste management methods to increase the potential for producing woody crops for energy and fiber, along with decreasing the environmental degradation associated with waste disposal and subsequent waste water production.
Nitrogen deposition effects on symbiotic fungi in northern hardwood forests Atmospheric nitrogen deposition from fuel combustion and agriculture is falling from the air onto natural ecosystems, leading to changes in nutrient availability and acidification of soils and waters.
Symbiotic fungi, called mycorrhizal fungi, are essential to tree nutrient uptake, and in some ecosystem types have been found to decline in abundances and diversity in response to nitrogen deposition, with possible negative effects on plant uptake of soil resources.
We wanted to understand the impact of nitrogen deposition on the mycorrhizal fungi associated with sugar maple dominated northern hardwood forests in Michigan.
Sugar maple decline has become a serious problem in our region. Understanding whether nitrogen deposition effects on mycorrhizal fungi might be contributing to this decline is critical to our ability to protect these forests. Effects of CO2 and O3 on the communities of symbiotic fungi associated with aspen and birch roots Elevated carbon dioxide CO2 and ozone O3 affect tree photosynthesis and growth in largely opposing ways, with CO2 increasing growth and O3 decreasing growth. These changes in growth can affect the amount of carbon going to roots.
Associated with roots are a class of symbiotic fungi that provide nutrients and water in exchange for sugars. Fuels and Fire Behavior in Eastern Hardwoods An ability to predict fuel loads and fire behavior are needed to improve prescriptions for prescribed fire and answer questions about smoke emissions and transport and fire effects on flora and fauna.
Our fuels and fire behavior research seeks to develop process-based mechanistic approaches to predicting fuel characteristics and fire behavior, with particular focus on hardwoods in Appalachian topography. Adapting Forests to Climate Change Climate models have projected significant increases in temperature over the next century for the Northeast and Midwest.
Climate change will also affect rainfall patterns, but scientists cannot yet predict how regional rainfall patterns will change.