The Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Attention, Negative Affect and Stress in Healthy Adults
Cortisol release is associated with depression, anxiety, and other negative emotions. However, the associations between breathing, emotion, attention, .. elucidate the association between emotional and cognitive benefit. Breathing is the bridge between mind and body, the connection between consciousness and unconsciousness, the movement of spirit in matter. Incorrect breathing can cause anxiety, stress and even depression. diaphragm, the abdomen and the intercostal muscles between the ribs.
In addition, fMRI studies have also detected a significant increase in activation in the bilateral inferior frontal and temporal regions under meditation, as compared to a relaxation condition. Cortisol, a steroid hormone of the glucocorticoid class, is released in response to stress.
Cortisol release is associated with depression, anxiety, and other negative emotions. The underlying mechanism may be grounded in its sensitivity for the activity of the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal HPA axis Clow et al.
Plasma cortisol levels reflect changes in the activation of the HPA axis with changes in CO2 inhalation Argyropoulos et al. However, the associations between breathing, emotion, attention, and cortisol have not been tested together. Although breathing practice offers an integrated benefit for mental and physical health, the results of studies on this topic are inconsistent, because of methodological limitations in the experimental design, a lack of measurable breathing feedback, and limited sample sizes.
Most cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have focused on how breathing treatment benefits individuals with particular conditions, such as women during pregnancy Schmidt et al.
Most importantly, most studies have investigated physiological effects, emotional benefits, and cognitive benefits separately, which prevents an understanding of the possible mental and physiological mechanisms of breathing in terms of its potential benefit for both mental and physical health. The present study was a pilot RCT with visible feedback breathing recordings used to monitor the breathing performance overall and to evaluate the outcomes of breathing practice.
The aims of this study were to investigate the mental benefits and the hormone levels in healthy volunteers who completed an 8-weeks breathing training scheme. An emotional self-reporting scale and cognitive tests were used to measure mental benefits. Additionally, cortisol a major HPA-axis-related stress hormone in humans Matousek et al. We hypothesized that an 8-weeks breathing training course would significantly improve cognitive performance, and reduce negative affect NA and physiological stress.
This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. The procedure of the study was fully explained to the participants, and informed written consent was obtained from each participant before the study.
All participants completed the following screening forms: Participants who had a history of physical health problems, such as cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neuropathy, and drug or alcohol abuse, were excluded from the study.
- The breathing conundrum – interoceptive sensitivity and anxiety
- The Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Attention, Negative Affect and Stress in Healthy Adults
In addition, participants who had yoga, TCC, or Qigong experience, as well as other mind—body training, were excluded. Experimental Protocol All interventions and tests were performed in a sunny, soundproof, open-air conference room at the IT company rather than in our laboratory.
We reasoned that this would avoid any potential anxiety that could be brought on by rushing from the workplace to the laboratory. Participants sat comfortably in leather armchairs throughout the study. A final total of 40 participants were included in this study. They were assigned to a breathing intervention group BIG, 10 females and 10 males or a control group CG, 10 females and 10 males by alternating the order of their registration.Master Breathing Technique for Anxiety, Stress, & Pain - Dr Mandell
Gender balance was also taken into consideration during this sampling procedure. The BIG learnt basic knowledge and essential skills about diaphragmatic breathing, and became familiar with experiencing breathing in as deeply as possible and then exhaling almost all the air from the lungs, slowly, in a self-controlled, slow rhythm, under the guide of a coach.
All participants were instructed to focus on their breathing and the sensations produced in the body, while sitting comfortably in chairs with their eyes closed. Participants were considered as performing diaphragmatic breathing if their respiratory rate decreased while their respiratory amplitude increased in waveform.
After this learning phase, both groups completed the baseline tests. Thereafter, the BIG received sessions of breath-controlling intervention. Each intervention involved a min resting breathing session and a min diaphragmatic breathing session consequently.
The diaphragmatic breathing session began with general verbal guidance from the breathing coach, who spoke at a slow speed to help participants to become more easily involved. A final test, similar to the baseline test, was implemented at the end of the 20th intervention.
In contrast, the CG received only an introduction of breathing and rest, a baseline test, and a final test, without any other intervention. The experimental training procedure consisted of 20 sessions over a period of 8 weeks. Each session was conducted every other day on weekdays. Both groups were informed of the purpose and the procedures of this study after training. During resting breathing, participants were instructed to breathe in a normal state. With closed eyes while sitting comfortably.
During diaphragmatic breathing, they were instructed to inhale as deeply as they could while their abdomen expanded, and to exhale as slowly as they could while their abdomen contracted, in a self-paced rhythm, under the instruction of a breathing training coach and with feedback via a recording device. Inspiratory breathing loads can be used to examine experienced breathing effort and generate respiratory-related evoked potentials with several peaks that indicate the transition from an early sensory component to a later cognitive aspect [ 37 - 40 ].
Moreover, resistive loads generate pre-motor potentials that reflect the involvement of higher cortical motor areas [ 41 ], they decrease systolic blood pressure [ 42 ], they differ for males and females [ 43 ], they are perceived less intense in older individuals [ 44 ], they generate load-dependent increases of unpleasantness [ 45 ], and the subjective effects can be modified by attentional distractions [ 46 ].
Thus, inspiratory breathing load provides a powerful experimental approach to examine the relationship between breathing as a form of interoceptive processing and anxiety. Not surprisingly, there are significant inter-individual differences in breathing load perception and load-related processing. Interestingly, individuals who report relatively more breathing-related symptoms were less accurate when reporting different loads than low symptom reporters [ 47 ]. Consistent with the idea that reduced accuracy may accompany pulmonary pathology is the finding that children with life-threatening asthma are at risk of life-threatening asthma attacks, in part because it requires a greater change in resistance above their baseline resistance before they sense an increased mechanical load [ 48 ].
Tiller and colleagues [ 13 ] found that contrary their initial hypothesis that there may be a heightened sensitivity to respiratory stimuli in patients with anxiety disorder, sensitivity may actually be blunted.
These authors concluded that anxious patients do not perceive changes in respiratory proprioceptive stimuli in a normal fashion but only after substantial deviations from homeostasis. This contrasts with the situation for normal subjects, who readily perceive proprioceptive changes and adapt and respond to them gradually as they occur. Others have reported that levels of individual anxiety affect respiratory rate, especially the expiratory time [ 49 ] and that the amount of perspiration response, i.
The notion of attenuated sensitivity to different loads is consistent with our extended insular model of anxiety [ 9 ]. As a consequence, attenuated discriminability of interoceptive afferents results in increased uncertainty about the actual interoceptive state, which is proposed to result in greater compensatory cognitive activity to reduce this uncertainty. The relationship between manipulated breathing and various forms of conditioning is an important but yet under-developed line of research [ 50 ].
Similar to the affective assessment of visual and auditory stimuli, interoceptive responses to breathing load are organized to a certain degree along the dimensions of valence and arousal and represent a homeostatic balance between metabolic activity and affective arousal [ 51 ]. Thus, inspiratory breathing loads themselves can be viewed as an aversive interoceptive stimulus, which evoke affective reactions comparable or stronger than those evoked by the emotional pictures [ 52 ].
More recently, this cue-related activation has been extended to startle potentiation [ 53 ]. Taken together, similar to exteroceptive stimuli, interoceptive stimuli such as increased breathing load can be subject to conditioning.
These data indicate that anticipating respiratory resistance activates defensive responding, which may mediate symptomatology in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders.
Increased breathing rate can also affect the affective evaluation of visual stimuli sensations yielding increased autonomic arousal [ 55 ]. Finally, interoceptive fear conditioning IFC to an interoceptive and exteroceptive conditional stimulus CS with a severe respiratory load applied for 30s as the unconditional stimulus US resulted in a CS-load associated larger startle blinks and a smaller decrease in respiratory rate and tidal volume.
In comparison, a CS-picture evoked an increase in tidal volume and self-reported fear [ 50 ]. Therefore, breathing modulation via inspiratory loads is associated with the similar neural and behavioral plasticity that occurs with other exteroceptive stimuli. However, there are no studies examining differential conditioning of breathing loads in anxiety versus comparison populations.
Although modulating breathing has long been considered an important therapeutic intervention for anxiety, surprisingly little is known about a the effect of interoceptively-based interventions on breathing or b how modulating breathing affect levels of anxiety. In a recent study, Vlemincs and colleagues showed that worry is characterized by decreased respiratory stability and flexibility whereas mindfulness seem to have countering effects these parameters [ 56 ].
For example, a mindfulness-based stress-reduction program [ 57 ] had a significant effect on breathing patterns during exercise [ 57 ]. It has been well-established that mindfulness approaches have profoundly beneficial effects for anxiety [ 58 ], yet we are only beginning to examine how these approaches work on a neurophysiological [ 59 ] and molecular level.
The Relationship between Breathing and Anxiety
Future studies will need to examine whether the response to loaded breathing can be used as a biomarker for the degree of anxiety severity or could be a treatment target to reduce the interoceptive sensitivity of anxious individuals. Conclusion The physiology and neurobiology of breathing is a rapidly progressing field that provides an experimental scaffold to study the biological basis of how the body and the brain interact. More importantly, the experimental tools available enable one to begin to delineate how specific emotions emerge as a consequence of the body brain interaction.
There are some intriguing initial findings of altered breathing perception, different breathing patterns, and changes in the neural signature related to breathing in individuals with high anxiety or anxiety disorders. However, much work needs to be done to better delineate the direction of the relationship between breathing and anxiety as well as to evaluate how brain systems respond to the modulation of breathing as a powerful intervention to attenuate levels of anxiety.
A deeper understanding of anxiety and associated disorder can emerge from investigating the molecular characteristics of peripheral lung receptors to the influence of controlled breathing during mindfulness. Mogg K, Bradley BP. A cognitive-motivational analysis of anxiety. Neural systems underlying approach and avoidance in anxiety disorders.
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Breathing: An Introduction
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